Smart Diaper Care for Adults from Ontex

Leading international personal hygiene group Ontex has developed a smart solution to improve incontinence care for patients, accelerating innovation in adult care, a category that has seen good and steady growth in recent years.

The solution comprises a top-quality diaper with a printed sensor, a transmitter clipped onto the diaper and an app for mobile devices. The combination accurately determines the saturation level of the diaper as well as the risk of leakage and alerts caregivers to when it is necessary to change the diaper. This enables tailored, individual continence support for patients which contributes to the well-being of users, families and caregivers alike. The smart diaper also reduces the environmental impact of care institutions by decreasing unnecessary diaper usage and savings on laundry.

“With this smart diaper, our objective is to develop and promote better continence management and improve the quality of life of those suffering from this condition,” said Xavier Lambrecht, president of the Ontex Healthcare Division. “It will also be a huge help to caregivers. The new smart diaper is a result of our long-standing innovation program at our R&D centre for adult care. It will reduce the time hospital and care home staff spend on continence care, freeing up time and budget for other essential care tasks.”

The new Ontex smart diaper has successfully passed the first stage of its validation after six weeks of testing in normal conditions of use at a senior care facility in Belgium. Results show the potential to reduce cases of urine leaks on clothes and linen by up to 50%, alleviating one of the most burdensome and costly tasks in institutions.

Incontinence is a very common condition. Almost one in ten peeople in Belgium already suffer from it. Even if incontinence is most common among the elderly, it affects all ages of the population. It is perceived as an embarrassing condition and finding the right support and personal hygiene product can be a challenge for people suffering from it. Moreover, hospitals and elderly care facilities face tremendous time and budget pressure to take care of patients.

 

Record Year for Suominen

Suominen reports a record financial year for 2020, with the Covid-19 pandemic driving higher demand for wipes, even as sales prices fell as a result of lower raw material prices.

The company achieved 2020 net sales of €458.9 million, up 11.5% from €411 million in 2019. Operating profit meanwhile climbed to €39.5 million from €8.1 million due to higher production and sales volumes, favourable raw material prices, and improved production and raw material efficiency.

“During the year, we announced three capacity investments supporting our strategy, two in Italy and one in the USA, along with a cooperation agreement with the Ahlstrom-Munksjö plant in Ställdalen in Sweden,” said president and CEO Petri Helsky. “We also introduced several new sustainable products made of biodegradable, compostable and renewable plant-based fibres.”

In addition, Suominen received the Supplier Innovation Award 2020 from Rockline Industries and became the first nonwovens substrate manufacturer to receive Fine to Flush certification from Water UK for its Hydraspun Royal – a dispersible nonwoven material designed for moist toilet tissues.

Helsky countinued as follows: “The pandemic has increased consumption of nonwovens in all our markets and the demand is expected to continue on a high level. In the longer term, Covid-19 may lead to a sustained increase in the use of nonwovens for cleaning and disinfection products. However, the risks related to the pandemic, such as possible shortages of raw materials and issues linked to logistics, as well as potential closures of plants due to virus infections or authority decisions remain relevant. We have already started to experience exceptional volatility in the cost and availability of raw materials and transportation.

“Our primary focus has been, and continues to be, to safeguard the health and safety of our employees while keeping our operations running with as little impact as possible.”

 

Technology that neutralizes coronavirus from Aksa Akrilik: Everfresh

The Everfresh technology developed by the world’s leading acrylic fiber producer Aksa Akrilik demonstrated its impact on the Covid-19. As a result of the tests conducted, it was observed that the coronavirus had become ineffective at 97.48 percent in 30 minutes in the textile products with Everfresh.

Introduced to the market in 2020 after four years of work at Aksa Akrilik R&D Center, the antimicrobial fiber product Everfresh successfully passed the Covid-19 test. With a lasting antimicrobial effect, Everfresh offers a wide range of products, ranging from masks to home textiles, which greatly neutralizes coronavirus in many products such as denim, active clothing, smoking, socks, carpet and bedding. According to the tests, coronavirus loses its effect by 97.48 percent within 30 minutes in the products applied with Everfresh.

Everfresh assurance in crowded locations

Unlike spray products or other products produced with similar methods, Everfresh has antimicrobial effects thanks to the zinc compound in the fiber. The product does not harm human health and skin as it is not a finishing, and can be used for products such as carpets, blankets, quilts, beddings, towels and pillows. The coronavirus effect is greatly reduced by the use of Everfresh products in crowded areas such as hotels, mosques and dormitories, where the need for social hygiene is felt at the highest level. Everfresh, which is expected to stand out especially in the use of carpets in public spaces, is ideal because it prevents the formation of bacteria, fungi and mold. The product stands out with its superior qualities and offers an advantageous price. Even if washed repeatedly, Everfresh maintains its strong microbial activity and its impact against coronavirus as it has on the first day, and meets the hygiene needs better than ever.

Cengiz Taş, Aksa Akrilik Board Member and General Manager

Developed to meet social expectations

Aksa Akrilik Board Member and General Manager Cengiz Taş stated that Everfresh technology is an important R&D product that has been introduced to the textile industry, and underlined that the product does not provide a protection against coronavirus, but inactivates the virus by 97.48 percent within a certain period of time.

Taş stated that the demand for antibacterial products increased after the pandemic and said, “With our new product Everfresh, we are delighted to respond to the health-sensitive needs of our society. Everfresh once again made a difference in textile products by eliminating coronavirus by 97.48 percent in half an hour. Thanks to its zinc compound, Everfresh provides antimicrobial properties to the products and reduces the need to wash the product by preventing bad odors. I can tell that it meets all expectations with its fast drying, water vapor permeability, air permeability, thermal insulation, soft, light and comfortable structure. Our product has been on the market since last year and is currently attracting a lot of attention. In addition to this, we anticipate that in the coming period we will meet the increasing needs especially for carpets with Everfresh technology in the market.”

YingYang to Showcase Latest Technology and Machinery at ITMA Asia + Citme

YingYang will showcase its green and advanced developing philosophy and technology, in the upcoming ITMA Asia + Citme exhibition from June, 12-16, 2021.

Nonwoven Machinery and technology specialist YingYang has responded rapidly in meeting shortages in PPE, wipes, etc since the early stage of pandemic in 2020, by putting its all priority to build the nonwoven lines which are highly demanded in both domestic and worldwide market, to produce the high quality melt blown and spun melt nonwovens for this application.

With the recovery in many industry sectors, YingYang is proud to announce its latest development in various nonwoven sectors such as natural fiber processing technology, 2 new models of high speed needle loom such as 2000rpm needle looms, 4 boards tandem high speed needler, outstanding spun lace technology with 28ton/day production capacity, etc.

As one of the leading suppliers in the international nonwoven industry, YingYang has a wide range of products and provides a comprehensive product portfolio. The products include but are not limited to the whole technical solution to manufacture almost all kinds of needle punched technical textile for automotive interior, carpet, geotextiles, microfiber synthetic leather, construction, etc; various kinds of thermal and chemical bonded products, spun-bond, spun-laced products, air-through nonwovens, air-laid products and others.

Offers Complete Technical Solutions

YingYang has been supplying all these technologies with the state-of-art machinery design and complete technical sulutions to enable clients producing the best quality nonwovens with best performance VS price ratio.

Quality and efficiency criteria have been applied in its production since the establishment of YingYang, in recent years, the production also focus on the Internet & Industry 4.0, environmentally friendly for the sustainable development of the company.

With strong R & D team, YingYang always provide the client with customized solutions among the most comprehensive product portfolio and best performance VS price ratio. Each project & every client is given unique attention with individualized focus from beginning of project such as business meeting and proposal, through the production &delivery, installation until its after-sales service, with fully complete file system for easy tracking and on time response. This has led to YingYang continuing to enjoy an excellent reputation as a major leading supplier of nonwoven machinery throughout the world.

Developing Environmentally Friendly Products

The natural resources are limited on this earth, in fact, more than 70% of the raw material for nonwoven machines, is from the recycled material, such as from PET bottles, natural fiber, textile waste, nonwoven waste,etc. YingYang is striving to develop sustainability and environmentally friendly products with natural fiber and recyclable fiber, such as Jute fiber panel to replace the synthetic panel, micro fiber synthetic leather to replace the natural leather, thermal bonded wadding products and vertical wadding to replace the foam, PP spunbonded nonwovens to replaces the plastic material, acoustic PET fiber panel to replace traditional acoustic products, etc, these are all great contribution to the sustainability and environment protection.

In the upcoming ITMA Asia + Citme exhibition, YingYang will showcase the one-step online production technology for the Jute fiber panel, which realized less wastage, less manpower request, less production cost, and more automatic production, compared to traditional two steps offline production method. The online produced needle punch&thermal bonded Jute fiber panel can reach 2400g/m2, 4mm thickness compare to the 2000g/m2, 7mm offline produced product. On the other hand, the machine design has been greener, more energy saving for sustainability as well.

Heading for 30 years, YingYang has provided thousands of complete set of customized high quality nonwoven technology solutions in 74 countries all over the world, including to the West countries, also traditional market such as Middle East, South& Southeast Asia, Russia, Middle Asia, etc.

After heavily invested for company development in 2020 for new powder electro spraying painting system, newly imported laser cutting system, new production halls and new apartment building for staff with more than 300 rooms for each individual, etc, YingYang is continually investing for its R & D laboratory in 2021 with a number of Lab production lines for new product development &technology, to continually provide clients with latest and state-of-art products from the best team.

 

Fibertex Nonwoven will Invest to Turkey

Fibertex Nonwovens, headquartered in Aalborg, Denmark, is embarking on a second stage of expansions with an investment of DKK 300 million in the company’s plants in the Czech Republic and Turkey. The investment was prompted by increased global demand for the company’s high-tech and sustainable speciality products.

In March 2021, Fibertex Nonwovens, announced an investment of just over DKK 300 million in a capacity expansion of one of the company’s two plants in the USA. Fibertex Nonwovens is now investing the same amount in Europe with a capacity expansion of the company’s existing plants in the Czech Republic and Turkey:

“Demand for our nonwovens has increased significantly in recent years. It concerns particularly the more specialised applications and high-performance materials for the healthcare sector, industrial products, specialist acoustic products for the automotive industry, nanofiltration for industrial purposes, etc. Our business development and research activities over the past ten years have afforded us a leading position in both Europe and the USA, and this is the direct reason for the total investment of just over DKK 600 million in capacity expansions,” explains Jørgen Bech Madsen, CEO of Fibertex Nonwovens, from the company’s headquarters in Aalborg.

He adds that the coronavirus pandemic has led to an explosive demand for hygiene products, such as disinfectant wipes. Fibertex Nonwovens ability to produce specialised products with unique properties at relatively low costs is increasingly recognised in the market.

New production line in the Czech Republic focusing on high-tech, sustainable products

Fibertex Nonwovens is increasingly using the so-called spunlace technology which is a relatively new production method where high-speed jets of water are used to entangle the fibres of the nonwoven textiles. Fibertex Nonwovens has years of positive experience with this particular technology, and the lion’s share of the investment will be spent on a new spunlace production line at the company’s plant in Svitavy in the eastern Czech Republic.

“We’ve got a lean and high-tech production setup with clear focus on innovation, and the new production line is to serve the huge demand for disinfection wipes from the healthcare sector. This demand was rising even before the coronavirus pandemic, but we expect it to increase even further in the coming years. With this new investment, we’ll be able to offer new and sustainable product properties that’ll help meet the demands of the future in this field.” Bech Madsen continues.

Capacity expansion in Turkey for value-added products

In 2015, Fibertex Nonwovens acquired the nonwovens operations of the Turkish manufacturer Ribatek. The plant is located in the city of Cerkezkoy in western Turkey, nearly 100 kilometres northwest of Istanbul, and it specialises in spunlacing. Here, Fibertex Nonwovens is now investing in an expansion of the current production facilities as well as adding additional lines in finishing and coating with a view to manufacturing specialised nonwovens products.

“The plant in Turkey complements the production units of our other European and US plants by manufacturing high-tech products. For example, we’re experiencing growing demand for various forms of finishing, which allow us to add entirely unique properties to the products,” says Bech Madsen.

DuPont Acquires Core Matrix Technology™ from Tex Tech

Globally patented unique technology will add to DuPont’s Life Protection Solutions  portfolio within Safety Solutions; providing the lightest and most flexible ballistic solutions available.

DuPont announced it has acquired Tex Tech’s Core Matrix Technology™, a monolithic fabric structure that can significantly reduce backface trauma, while increasing ballistic and fragmentation performance for military and law enforcement personnel. Financial terms of the agreement were not disclosed.

DuPont’s acquisition of this globally-patented and unique Core Matrix Technology™ adds to the Company’s already robust portfolio of life protection solutions, enabling the most flexible, lightweight ballistic solutions to meet new National Institute of Justice (NIJ) standards for enhanced durability. In addition to enhanced protection, the new technology also increases the comfort of wearing bullet-resistant body armor.

“The addition of the Core Matrix Technology™ to the family of DuPont Life Protection solutions enables us to offer a more comprehensive portfolio to meet any and all protection needs for soldiers and law enforcement personnel,” said John Richard, vice president, DuPont Safety Solutions.  “With the combination of the Core Matrix Technology™ and our current and future fiber technologies we are well positioned to offer the best, most flexible and lightest weight solutions available.”

The needs of today’s military, law enforcement and global security professionals require advanced materials to help protect those who protect people worldwide. DuPont is committed to providing the most innovative solutions designed for specific hazards, and this acquisition strengthens an increasingly robust portfolio of technologies to help our customers meet their current and future challenges.

“This transaction will increase the global accessibility of Core Matrix Technology™, said Scott Burkhart, CEO Tex Tech.”  “Leveraging DuPont’s technical expertise, brand leadership, global reach, and value chain relationships will accelerate the expansion of the Core Matrix Technology™ across regions and market segments with a differentiated solution to improve the protection and performance of body armor for soldiers and law enforcement personnel.”

 

Devan and Jeanologia Join Forces to Reduce Water Usage

Devan, leader in sustainable and functional textile finishes, has been working together with Jeanologia, a global leader in sustainable and efficient finishing technologies for textiles, to reduce further water consumption during the application of Devan’s awarded BI-OME® antimicrobial and R-Vital® skincare range.

With increased attention to climate change and limiting excess water consumption in textile production (whether denim or other textiles), Devan and Jeanologia worked together to evaluate the application of Devan finishes onto garments via the patented e-Flow technology.

Devan has been committed to bringing ‘green’ chemistry to the world since the early 1990’s. Jeanologia is an innovative company with over 25 years of experience in the development of sustainable and eco-efficient technologies for the finishing industry.

e-Flow technology: The highest quality, a minimal amount of water

e-Flow technology can accomplish a considerable number of finishing effects with the highest quality, a minimal amount of water and zero discharge. The technology uses micronization and nebulization to substitute traditional abrasion process and deliver performance chemistry using nano-bubbles instead of water.

It reduces the cost of application, saves the amount of water used and ensures that the correct amount of chemistry stays in the garment and not in the water. e-Flow is the perfect fit for every industrial washing machine.

This allows mills and brands to apply Devan’s technologies in a more sustainable way than using traditional application equipment, even for smaller production runs and direct onto garments.

“The global textile production using 4% of the global freshwater withdrawal”

“With the global textile production using 4% of the global freshwater withdrawal, here at Devan we are continuously working on more sustainable solutions”, says Dr. Vanessa Daelman, CTO at Devan. “Next to this, we of course highly value sustainable application methods from Jeanologia, like e-Flow, in order to reduce the excess water usage during textile application.

We are delighted that we could work together with Jeanologia and establish that Devan technologies can be easily applied via these technologies onto garments or fabrics like denim and with full retention of functionality.

This application method also allows post garment treatment of our finishes, for example an antimicrobial treatment onto already finished garments, which will be increasingly important in a more circular textile world where re-use plays an important role”, Dr. Daelman concludes.

 

HIGHTEX Postponed, New Dates: 14-18 June 2022

HIGHTEX International Technical Textiles and Nonwoven Trade Fair, which is planned to be held on June 22-26, 2021 was decided to postpone to June 14-18, 2022, considering the effects of the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic in the world.

This postponement decision was taken as a result of intense discussions and evaluations with our participants and sector representatives.

The HIGHTEX Organization Team made the following statements: “We as HIGHTEX Organization Team, our priority is to protect your valuable exhibitors and visitors’ investments and all rights, not our commercial earnings.

In this regard, we believe that all of our participants will find this compulsory postponement decision taken for the HIGTEX Exhibition justified and will understand.”

HIGHTEX 2022, which will be held in Istanbul Tuyap Fair and Congress Center between 14- 18 June 2022, simultaneously with the ITM 2022 Exhibition.

HIGHTEX 2022 being the first and only exhibition in its field in Turkey will host the world’s leading technical textile and nonwoven manufacturers in Istanbul for 5 days.

HIGHTEX 2022, where many companies from Turkey and abroad will exhibit their latest technologies and products; will be visited by many industry professionals from medical to ready-to-wear, from decoration to cosmetics, from automotive to defense.

 

 

Sound Absorption Properties of Natural Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Needle-Punched Nonwoven Fabrics Used in Automotive Interior

Zeliha ÇAVUŞ; *Mustafa Sabri ÖZEN; Aysun GENÇTÜRK;

Serdar EVİRGEN; *Mehmet AKALIN

SİTEKS, Sismanlar Textile Company, Saray, TEKIRDAG

*Marmara University, Technology Faculty, Textile Engineering Department, Kadıköy, İSTANBUL

Abstract

In this study, the properties of sound absorption of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 by blending of polypropylene fibres with flax and hemp fibres separately in the ratio of 50/50% were investigated. The sound absorption properties of produced nonwoven fabrics were measured in the frequency range of 100-5000Hz, and the results were given in the unit of the sound absorption coefficient. The effect of fabric weight in grams per square meter on the sound absorption properties of needle punched nonwoven made from hemp and polypropylene fibres in blending ratio of 50/50% were shown graphically.

The production work was carried out at large scale industrial machines instead of small scale laboratory type machines for more consistent results. These fibres were firstly blended and then carded, laid up and finally, needle punched. The fibre webs were formed at the carding machine and laid up at cross lapper machine according to the required web weight per square meter. Finally, the carded and folded webs (batt) were bonded at needle punching machines, and the needle punched nonwoven fabric production was finished.

The sound absorption coefficients of needle punched nonwoven fabrics were measured by impedance tube method according to ASTM 1050-98 standard in the frequency range of 100-5000Hz.

It was found that the nonwoven fabric produced from PP/Flax fibres had higher sound absorption coefficient values compared to the nonwoven fabrics made from PP/Hemp fibres at 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 fabric weight in the medium and high-frequency range. It was seen that the trends of graphs showing the sound absorption coefficient against the frequency of the PP/Flax and PP/Hemp nonwoven fabrics with 1300g/m2 fabric weight are very similar and their values of sound absorption coefficient are close to each other.

It was observed that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of the needle-punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2, 2200g/m2 from hemp and polypropylene fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% increased with the increase of fabric weight in grams per square meter. It was found that there is a positive correlation between fabric weight and sound absorption coefficient.

Keywords: Natural Fibre, Nonwoven, Sound Absorption Coefficient, Needle Punching Technology

I. Introduction

Noise, which is defined as unwanted or excessive sound, is considered a pollution type like water or air pollution and causes negative impacts on human health. Long term exposure to noises generated in the environment and workplaces can cause many health problems ranging from stress, loss of hearing, tiredness, poor concentration, sleep disturbance, productivity losses, communication difficulties, fatigue, lack of sleep, to more serious issues such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, tinnitus, annoyance and inner ear damage.

In 1971, the World Health Organization (WHO) stated that noise should be accepted as a major environmental threat to human health. It is necessary to protect human health from exposure to environmental noises originating from transportation (road traffic, railway, aircraft, etc.) and leisure noise (nightclubs, concerts, live sporting events, loud music etc.) in addition to noises originating from machines used in workplaces. Many material and methods have been developing to provide acoustic comfort in indoor spaces such as automobile, building, aeroplane and cinema. [1] Compared to commonly used synthetic fibrous material, the materials developed from natural fibres represent eco-friendly solutions in various technical textile applications such as automotive, building, industrial. [2] The nonwoven products produced from natural fibres can be used in building as an alternative to insulation materials such as glass wool, rock wool or mineral wool. [3]

Especially, reducing unwanted noise coming from the engine, tires and traffic on the road in passenger compartments of vehicles is very important for automobile manufacturers. The most preferred fibre-based sound absorbers for noise control applications are nonwoven fabrics. The sound-absorbing nonwoven materials attached to various components such as floor carpet, headliners, trunk&luggage side, parcel shelf, door panels, trunk&luggage floor, protector wheelhouse, accessories mat, dash engine room insulator and pad&spacer tray are used in car interiors. The nonwoven fabrics used in car interiors have superior properties comparing to textile fabrics, including cost-effective, easy moulding, recyclability and attractive cost/performance ratio. In addition to that, the nonwoven fabrics can be designed with specifically targeted properties as thickness, mass and voluminous. Their porous structure and high surface areas make nonwoven fabrics attractive for being used in technical textile applications where sound absorption is desired. [4], [5]

The nonwoven fabrics have a porous structure inherently with interconnected cavities, allowing the sound waves to enter through them. When porous material is exposed to incident sound waves, the air molecules in the material are forced to vibrate and, in doing so, lose some of their original energy. This is because a part of the energy of the air molecules is converted into heat due to thermal and viscous losses at the walls of the interior pores and tunnels within the material. [3], [5]

Figure1-Nonwoven Fabric Applications in Automotive Interior-Otomotiv İç Mekanlarında Dokunmamış Kumaş Uygulamaları

Fibrous materials have been widely used in noise reduction due to porous structures. [6] Today, the existing sound-absorbing nonwoven materials are mostly produced from synthetic materials such as recycled polyester, virgin polyester and polypropylene, which are not biodegradable and eco-friendly. [7] As environmental protection, biodegradability and sustainability are very important issues, the usage of natural fibres such as flax, hemp, kenaf, jute and kapok for automotive textiles applications has been increasing as an alternative material to the synthetic fibres. Natural fibres are considered effective raw materials for producing noise reduction materials.

As the fabric weight in grams per square meter and thickness are important parameters, carding/needle punching or air-laid/ thermal bonding technologies as web forming and web bonding methods are preferred for the production of nonwoven fabrics with sound absorption property.

In previous scientific studies, many researchers have investigated the effect of fibre and fabric properties in addition to fibre type on the sound absorption properties of nonwoven fabrics. The results showed that the use of finer fibres, low fabric density, higher thickness and fabric weight in grams per square meter has a positive effect on the sound absorption of nonwoven materials. Gomez and his colleagues said that the sound absorption performance could be improved by increasing the thickness of the fabric or sample and by having a small fibre diameter. [8] Guzdemir et al. expressed that the jute, flax, hemp, kenaf fibres could be used instead of synthetic fibres such as polyester and polypropylene in construction and automotive application. These natural fibres are generally blended with staple polylactic acid (PLA) fibres. The polylactic fibres (PLA) have significant potential as a biodegradability polymer, but its high cost and slow biodegradability restrict its use. [9] Zhang et al. studied sound and vibration damping property of biocomposites produced from bamboo, cotton, flax and PLA fibres by using carding and needle punching machines. The best acoustic performance was exhibited by bamboo/cotton/PLA composite. [10] Pasayev et al. the sound-absorbing properties of nonwoven webs produced from chicken feather fibres were investigated. In this study, it was stated that nonwoven webs could be used as a sound-absorbing material. [1] Bhat et al. researched that effect of microfiber layers on acoustical absorptive properties of nonwoven fabrics. It was found that polypropylene microfiber melt-blown nonwoven fabric displayed good sound absorption behaviour. [11] Islam et al. indicated that there is a direct correlation between loss of sound transmission with an increase in thickness and fabric weight, decrease in air permeability. [12] Muthukumar et al. studied sound and thermal insulation properties of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced from flax/low melting polyester. The low melting bonding polyester fibres were used at three different blending ratios such as 10%, 20% and 30%. It was found that developed nonwoven fabrics had better sound insulation values at medium and high frequency, and there was no significant change in sound insulation value with increase in the ratio of low melting bonding polyester fibre. It is considered that the presence of central canal-like free space in the flax fibre, which is referred to as lumen can contribute to sound absorption. [3]

Figure2-Some of the Vegetable Fibres-Bitkisel Lif Örnekleri

Thilagavathi et al. compared sound and thermal insulation properties of the needle-punched nonwoven fabrics made from 100% pineapple fibre (PALF) and blend of pineapple/low melting bonding polyester fibre. It was found that nonwoven fabrics produced from the blending of pineapple fibres and low melting bonding PET fibre had better sound insulation properties. [13] Campeau et al. verified the hypothesis that hollowness of the fibre has only small effects on the acoustics of the material in his study. [14] Tang et al. found that the tailored cross-sections of synthetic fibres such as circle, hollow and triangle are beneficial to improve the acoustic properties of the material in his review study. [6] Ganesan and Karthik investigated the effects of blend ratio of cotton fibre with kapok and milkweed fibres, fabric weight and bulk density on acoustic properties of nonwoven fabric. It was found that there is a positive correlation between fabric weight in grams per square meter and sound reduction and negative correlation between bulk density and sound reduction. It should remember that the porosity of nonwoven fabric is a very significant parameter on sound reduction. [7] Liu et al. investigated the sound-absorbing properties of nonwoven composites made from kapok fibre with polypropylene fibre and hollow polyester fibre in the low-frequency region of 100-500Hz. It was found that kapok fibre had a superior acoustical property at low frequency. [15]

In this study, the sound absorption properties of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 from Polypropylene/Flax and Polypropylene/Hemp fibres in blending ratio of 50/50% were investigated in the frequency range of 100Hz to 5000Hz. Moreover, the influence of fabric weight on sound absorption properties of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 from PP/Hemp fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% were studied.

Figure3-Natural Fibre Reinforced Nonwoven Composites-Doğal Elyaf Takviyeli Dokunmamış Kumaş Esaslı Kompozit Ürünler

II. Materials and Method

II.1. Materials

Hemp and flax fibres were procured from local fibre producer in Romania. As the fine flax fibres used at yarn production in the textile industry are not cost-effective for the nonwoven industry, the coarse flax fibres were preferred in the production of nonwoven fabrics. The flax and hemp fibres were not treated with alkali solution before further processing.

The polypropylene fibre with 6.7dtex fineness and 75mm staple length was used in the study. The mechanical properties of fibres were tested according to “TSE EN ISO 5079 Textiles-Fibres-Determination of Breaking Force and Elongation at Break of Individual Fibres” standard. The mechanical properties and fineness values of the fibres used in the experimental study were given at Table1.

Table1-Mechanical Properties and Fineness Values of Fibres, Liflerin Mekanik Özellikleri ve İncelik Değerleri

  Tenacity

Mukavemet

(cN/tex)

Elongation

Uzama

(%)

   Fibre Fineness

Lif İnceliği

(tex)

Polypropylene (Polipropilen) 27,42 198,58              0,670
Flax (Keten) 45,72 4,5154 4,488
Hemp (Kenevir) 53,82 6,2860 6,941

II.2. Web Formation

The staple polypropylene fibres were blended with flax and hemp fibres in the ratio of 50/50% separately. The production study was carried out at industrial type needle punching line consisting of carding, cross lapper, pre-needling and needle punching machines instead of laboratory-type machines.

II.3. Web Bonding-Production of Needle Punched Nonwoven Fabrics

The webs were formed at the carding machine and overlapped at cross lapping machine according to required web weight. The carded webs in which the fibres are laid parallel to each other were pre-needled at punch density of 5punch/cm2. The pre-needled nonwoven fabrics were mechanically bonded by using two needle punching machines. The needle punched nonwoven fabrics were produced with punch densities of 50punch/cm2 and 45 punch/cm2 at needle punching machines respectively. The depth of needle penetration was determined to 10mm for all needle punching process.

Test Results

The values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics were measured by using BSWA TECH impedance tube system and method according to ASTM 1050-98 standard in the frequency range of 100-5000Hz. The nonwoven fabrics were cut into 100mm and 30mm diameters for measurements in low, medium and high-frequency ranges.

Figure4-The Values of Sound Absorption Coefficient of PP/Hemp Nonwoven Fabric-PP/Kenevir Esaslı Dokunmamış Kumaşların Ses Yutum Katsayısı Değerleri

Figure4 shows the influence of fabric weight on the sound absorption properties of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2, 2200g/m2 from hemp and staple polypropylene fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50%. The sound absorption results were given in the unit of the sound absorption coefficient. The values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics were measured in the frequency range of 100Hz to 5000Hz. It was seen that all needle punched nonwoven fabrics had lower sound absorption coefficient values in the low-frequency range.

As the nonwoven fabric weight in grams per square meter increased, it was observed that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of all nonwoven fabrics increased starting from 500Hz. This result can be explained with due to the higher number of fibres in nonwoven fabric structure and larger fibre surface area, thus longer tortuous path for sound waves to travel in nonwoven fabric structure. The damping of sound waves depends on the tortuous paths of fibres in the nonwoven fabric. [16]

It was remarkable that all of the PP/Hemp needle-punched nonwoven fabrics have exhibited poor sound absorption performance in the low-frequency range of 100-500Hz. It is suggested that the addition of viscous interlayer material with sound-proofing property could be used to increase the damping effect. [4] Sound absorption at low frequencies can be improved either by increasing the thickness of the sound absorbers and providing an air gap between the sound absorber and solid backing. [16], [17]

Figure5-Sound Absorption and Insulation Mechanisms-Ses Yutum ve Yalıtım Mekanizmaları

Figure6-The Values of Sound Absorption Coefficient of PP/Hemp and PP/Flax Nonwoven Fabric at 1300g/m2 Fabric Weight-1300g/m2 PP/Kenevir ve PP/Keten Esaslı Dokunmamış Kumaşların Ses Yutum Katsayısı Değerleri

In the Figure6, the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at 1300g/m2 fabric weight from PP/Flax and PP/Hemp fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% were compared in the frequency range of 100-5000Hz. It was seen that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of both of the needle-punched nonwoven fabrics increased continuously in the frequency range of 500Hz to 5000Hz. It was observed that the trends of the sound absorption coefficient graphs of both PP/Flax and PP/Hemp nonwoven fabrics were similar to each other. Both of the needle-punched nonwoven fabrics exhibited poor sound absorption performance in the low-frequency range of 100Hz to 500Hz. This result can be explained by the fact that the wavelength of the sound wave is longer and the propagation path of the sound wave is the shorter at low frequency.

Figure7-The Values of Sound Absorption Coefficient of PP/Hemp and PP/Flax Nonwoven Fabric at 1600g/m2 Fabric Weight-1600g/m2 PP/Kenevir ve PP/Keten Esaslı Dokunmamış Kumaşların Ses Yutum Katsayısı Değerleri

In the Figure7, the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at 1600g/m2 fabric weight from PP/Flax and PP/Hemp fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% were compared in the frequency range of 100-5000Hz. It was seen that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of both of the needle punched nonwoven fabrics increased continuously in the frequency range of 400 to 5000Hz. It was observed that PP/Flax nonwoven fabric had higher sound absorption coefficient values compared to PP/Hemp nonwoven fabric in the frequencies between 1250 and 4000Hz. It was seen that the sound absorption coefficient values of PP/Flax and PP/Hemp nonwoven fabrics were almost the same in the frequencies between 100Hz and 1000Hz.

Figure8-The Values of Sound Absorption Coefficient of PP/Hemp and PP/Flax Nonwoven Fabric at 2200g/m2 Fabric Weight-2200g/m2 PP/Kenevir ve PP/Keten Esaslı Dokunmamış Kumaşların Ses Yutum Katsayısı Değerleri

In the Figure8, the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at 2200g/m2 fabric weight from PP/Flax and PP/Hemp fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% were compared in the frequency range of 100Hz to 5000Hz. It was seen that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of both of the needle punched fabrics nonwoven increased continuously in the frequencies between 315Hz and 5000Hz. It was observed that PP/Flax nonwoven fabric had higher sound absorption coefficient values compared to PP/Hemp nonwoven fabric in the frequencies between 315 and 2500Hz. This result may be due to the fact that the flax fibres are finer than hemp fibres. As the flax fibres are finer than hemp fibres, the nonwoven fabric produced from flax fibres has a higher number of fibres. This leads to an increase in surface area of fibre in nonwoven fabric and higher sound absorbency. It was seen that PP/Flax and PP/Hemp needle punched nonwoven fabrics had low sound absorption coefficient values in the low-frequency range. This result can be explained by the fact that the wavelength of the sound wave is longer and the propagation path of the sound wave is the shorter at low frequency. As a result, dissipation of sound energy at lower frequencies is less and more dissipation in higher frequencies. Developed nonwoven fabrics can be used as effective sound absorptive materials for medium and high-frequency sound absorption applications. The nonwoven fabrics with higher sound absorption properties in the low-frequency range should be developed in the future.

III. Conclusion

In this study, the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 from PP/Flax and PP/Hemp fibres in blending ratio of 50/50% were compared in the frequency range of 100Hz to 5000Hz. Moreover, the influence of fabric weight on sound absorption property of needle punched nonwoven fabric produced hemp and polypropylene fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% was investigated. The nonwoven fabrics were produced by using industrial type the carding, cross lapping and needle punching machines.

It was observed that the PP/Flax needle-punched nonwoven fabrics had higher sound absorption coefficient values compared to PP/Hemp nonwoven fabric at 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 fabric weight in the medium and high-frequency range. This result could be due to the finer and more porosity structure of flax fibres compared to hemp fibres.

It was seen that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced from hemp and polypropylene fibres increased with the increase of fabric weight in grams per square meter. As the weight of nonwoven fabric in grams per square meter increased, it was seen that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics increased significantly due to the increasing number of fibres and fibre surface area in the nonwoven fabric structure. It should be emphasized once again that the nonwoven fabrics produced from finer fibres are ideal materials for sound absorption applications due to the fact that they have a higher total surface area.

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Global Success of Technical Textiles will be Reflected in HIGHTEX 2021

The nonwoven and technical textiles industry has become the focus of the whole world during the pandemic process. Most countries carried out works for these sectors with their investments, production and innovations.

During the pandemic process, a new one is added every day to the works for the nonwoven and technical textiles sector, whose importance is increasing in line with the needs. Turkey has become a center of  technical textiles by showing that its accumulation in these field and power.

In the Turkish technical textiles sector, which has an export market of 107 billion dollars worldwide and continues to break its own export record every month, R&D and innovation investments continue without slowing down. Technical textile exports, which increased by 77 percent in last November compared to the same month of the previous year, increased by 55 percent in January – November period and reached 2.5 billion dollars. Thus, technical and smart textiles and production technologies both attracted more attention and gained more importance in line with the needs of the pandemic process.

HIGHTEX 2021 Will Break A New Record

HIGHTEX 2021 International Technical Textiles and Nonwoven Fair, which will be held at Tüyap Fair and Congress Center on 22-26 June 2021, will be the exhibition where the latest technologies and products for nonwoven, technical and smart textiles which have become more important during the pandemic period and have become the focus of the whole world. Especially the products and technologies produced for the pandemic will attract more attention at the exhibition. HIGHTEX 2021 Exhibition, which will gather its exhibitors and visitors under one roof, will also allow new collaborations. At the same time, the exhibition, where developing technologies and products are exhibited, will provide a great advantage in terms of the formation of new business ideas.

HIGHTEX 2021, the first and only exhibition in Turkey in its field are expected to sign a new record in terms of number of exhibitors and visitors. You can visit www.hightexfairs.com website for more information about HIGHTEX 2021, which is preparing to attract more attention and host people than ever before.