HIGHTEX Postponed, New Dates: 14-18 June 2022

HIGHTEX International Technical Textiles and Nonwoven Trade Fair, which is planned to be held on June 22-26, 2021 was decided to postpone to June 14-18, 2022, considering the effects of the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic in the world. This postponement decision was taken as a result of intense discussions and evaluations with our participants and sector representatives.

The HIGHTEX Organization Team made the following statements: “We as HIGHTEX Organization Team, our priority is to protect your valuable exhibitors and visitors’ investments and all rights, not our commercial earnings. In this regard, we believe that all of our participants will find this compulsory postponement decision taken for the HIGTEX Exhibition justified and will understand.”

HIGHTEX 2022, which will be held in Istanbul Tuyap Fair and Congress Center between 14- 18 June 2022, simultaneously with the ITM 2022 Exhibition.

HIGHTEX 2022 being the first and only exhibition in its field in Turkey will host the world’s leading technical textile and nonwoven manufacturers in Istanbul for 5 days.

HIGHTEX 2022, where many companies from Turkey and abroad will exhibit their latest technologies and products; will be visited by many industry professionals from medical to ready-to-wear, from decoration to cosmetics, from automotive to defense.

 

Facemasks As the Latest Wearable Sensors

Colour-changing strips integrated into nonwoven facemasks that work on the same principle as pregnancy testing kits may soon be used to detect Covid-19 in a user’s breath or saliva.

A University of California San Diego project, which received $1.3 million from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), is aimed at providing simple, affordable and reliable surveillance for Covid-19 infections that can be done daily and easily implemented in resource-poor settings. It is part of the NIHRapid Acceleration of Diagnostics Radical (RADx-rad) programme.

“In many ways, masks are the perfect ‘wearable’ sensor for our current world,” says Jesse Jokerst, professor of nanoengineering at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering and principal investigator of the project. “We’re taking what many people are already wearing and repurposing them, so we can quickly and easily identify new infections and protect vulnerable communities.”

The test strips, that can be put on any mask, are being designed to detect the presence of protein-cleaving molecules, called proteases, produced from infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

The idea is that as the user breathes through the mask, particles – including SARS-CoV-2 proteases if the user is infected – will accumulate in the test strip. At the end of the day or during a mask change, the user will conduct the test. The test strip is equipped with a blister pack that the user squeezes, releasing nanoparticles that change colour in the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 proteases. A control line on the test strip will show what a positive result should look like. This would be similar to checking the results of a home pregnancy test.

“Think of this as a surveillance approach, similar to having a smoke detector in the house,” said Jokerst. “It would just sit in the background every day and if it gets triggered, then you know there’s a problem and that’s when you would look into it with more sophisticated testing,”

The test strips can be easily mass produced via roll-to-roll processing to keep costs down to a few cents per strip.

“We want this to be affordable enough for daily testing,” Jokerst said. “This would allow facilities at high risk such as group homes, prisons, dialysis clinics and homeless shelters to monitor for new infections earlier and more frequently to reduce spread.”

Jokerst is teaming up with researchers at UC San Diego School of Medicine to test the strips first on Covid-19-positive saliva samples, then on patients and healthcare workers at Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System.

“The proteases we’re detecting here are the same ones present in infections with the original SARS virus from 2003 as well as the MERS virus, so it would not be too far of a stretch to imagine that we could still benefit from this work later on should future pandemics emerge,” he said. “Even with vaccination efforts underway, this surveillance approach could be deployed in parts of the world where vaccines are not yet available or still limited in distribution.

 

Sound Absorption Properties of Natural Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Needle-Punched Nonwoven Fabrics Used in Automotive Interior

Zeliha ÇAVUŞ; *Mustafa Sabri ÖZEN; Aysun GENÇTÜRK;

Serdar EVİRGEN; *Mehmet AKALIN

SİTEKS, Sismanlar Textile Company, Saray, TEKIRDAG

*Marmara University, Technology Faculty, Textile Engineering Department, Kadıköy, İSTANBUL

Abstract

In this study, the properties of sound absorption of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 by blending of polypropylene fibres with flax and hemp fibres separately in the ratio of 50/50% were investigated. The sound absorption properties of produced nonwoven fabrics were measured in the frequency range of 100-5000Hz, and the results were given in the unit of the sound absorption coefficient. The effect of fabric weight in grams per square meter on the sound absorption properties of needle punched nonwoven made from hemp and polypropylene fibres in blending ratio of 50/50% were shown graphically.

The production work was carried out at large scale industrial machines instead of small scale laboratory type machines for more consistent results. These fibres were firstly blended and then carded, laid up and finally, needle punched. The fibre webs were formed at the carding machine and laid up at cross lapper machine according to the required web weight per square meter. Finally, the carded and folded webs (batt) were bonded at needle punching machines, and the needle punched nonwoven fabric production was finished.

The sound absorption coefficients of needle punched nonwoven fabrics were measured by impedance tube method according to ASTM 1050-98 standard in the frequency range of 100-5000Hz.

It was found that the nonwoven fabric produced from PP/Flax fibres had higher sound absorption coefficient values compared to the nonwoven fabrics made from PP/Hemp fibres at 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 fabric weight in the medium and high-frequency range. It was seen that the trends of graphs showing the sound absorption coefficient against the frequency of the PP/Flax and PP/Hemp nonwoven fabrics with 1300g/m2 fabric weight are very similar and their values of sound absorption coefficient are close to each other.

It was observed that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of the needle-punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2, 2200g/m2 from hemp and polypropylene fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% increased with the increase of fabric weight in grams per square meter. It was found that there is a positive correlation between fabric weight and sound absorption coefficient.

Keywords: Natural Fibre, Nonwoven, Sound Absorption Coefficient, Needle Punching Technology

I. Introduction

Noise, which is defined as unwanted or excessive sound, is considered a pollution type like water or air pollution and causes negative impacts on human health. Long term exposure to noises generated in the environment and workplaces can cause many health problems ranging from stress, loss of hearing, tiredness, poor concentration, sleep disturbance, productivity losses, communication difficulties, fatigue, lack of sleep, to more serious issues such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, tinnitus, annoyance and inner ear damage.

In 1971, the World Health Organization (WHO) stated that noise should be accepted as a major environmental threat to human health. It is necessary to protect human health from exposure to environmental noises originating from transportation (road traffic, railway, aircraft, etc.) and leisure noise (nightclubs, concerts, live sporting events, loud music etc.) in addition to noises originating from machines used in workplaces. Many material and methods have been developing to provide acoustic comfort in indoor spaces such as automobile, building, aeroplane and cinema. [1] Compared to commonly used synthetic fibrous material, the materials developed from natural fibres represent eco-friendly solutions in various technical textile applications such as automotive, building, industrial. [2] The nonwoven products produced from natural fibres can be used in building as an alternative to insulation materials such as glass wool, rock wool or mineral wool. [3]

Especially, reducing unwanted noise coming from the engine, tires and traffic on the road in passenger compartments of vehicles is very important for automobile manufacturers. The most preferred fibre-based sound absorbers for noise control applications are nonwoven fabrics. The sound-absorbing nonwoven materials attached to various components such as floor carpet, headliners, trunk&luggage side, parcel shelf, door panels, trunk&luggage floor, protector wheelhouse, accessories mat, dash engine room insulator and pad&spacer tray are used in car interiors. The nonwoven fabrics used in car interiors have superior properties comparing to textile fabrics, including cost-effective, easy moulding, recyclability and attractive cost/performance ratio. In addition to that, the nonwoven fabrics can be designed with specifically targeted properties as thickness, mass and voluminous. Their porous structure and high surface areas make nonwoven fabrics attractive for being used in technical textile applications where sound absorption is desired. [4], [5]

The nonwoven fabrics have a porous structure inherently with interconnected cavities, allowing the sound waves to enter through them. When porous material is exposed to incident sound waves, the air molecules in the material are forced to vibrate and, in doing so, lose some of their original energy. This is because a part of the energy of the air molecules is converted into heat due to thermal and viscous losses at the walls of the interior pores and tunnels within the material. [3], [5]

Figure1-Nonwoven Fabric Applications in Automotive Interior-Otomotiv İç Mekanlarında Dokunmamış Kumaş Uygulamaları

Fibrous materials have been widely used in noise reduction due to porous structures. [6] Today, the existing sound-absorbing nonwoven materials are mostly produced from synthetic materials such as recycled polyester, virgin polyester and polypropylene, which are not biodegradable and eco-friendly. [7] As environmental protection, biodegradability and sustainability are very important issues, the usage of natural fibres such as flax, hemp, kenaf, jute and kapok for automotive textiles applications has been increasing as an alternative material to the synthetic fibres. Natural fibres are considered effective raw materials for producing noise reduction materials.

As the fabric weight in grams per square meter and thickness are important parameters, carding/needle punching or air-laid/ thermal bonding technologies as web forming and web bonding methods are preferred for the production of nonwoven fabrics with sound absorption property.

In previous scientific studies, many researchers have investigated the effect of fibre and fabric properties in addition to fibre type on the sound absorption properties of nonwoven fabrics. The results showed that the use of finer fibres, low fabric density, higher thickness and fabric weight in grams per square meter has a positive effect on the sound absorption of nonwoven materials. Gomez and his colleagues said that the sound absorption performance could be improved by increasing the thickness of the fabric or sample and by having a small fibre diameter. [8] Guzdemir et al. expressed that the jute, flax, hemp, kenaf fibres could be used instead of synthetic fibres such as polyester and polypropylene in construction and automotive application. These natural fibres are generally blended with staple polylactic acid (PLA) fibres. The polylactic fibres (PLA) have significant potential as a biodegradability polymer, but its high cost and slow biodegradability restrict its use. [9] Zhang et al. studied sound and vibration damping property of biocomposites produced from bamboo, cotton, flax and PLA fibres by using carding and needle punching machines. The best acoustic performance was exhibited by bamboo/cotton/PLA composite. [10] Pasayev et al. the sound-absorbing properties of nonwoven webs produced from chicken feather fibres were investigated. In this study, it was stated that nonwoven webs could be used as a sound-absorbing material. [1] Bhat et al. researched that effect of microfiber layers on acoustical absorptive properties of nonwoven fabrics. It was found that polypropylene microfiber melt-blown nonwoven fabric displayed good sound absorption behaviour. [11] Islam et al. indicated that there is a direct correlation between loss of sound transmission with an increase in thickness and fabric weight, decrease in air permeability. [12] Muthukumar et al. studied sound and thermal insulation properties of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced from flax/low melting polyester. The low melting bonding polyester fibres were used at three different blending ratios such as 10%, 20% and 30%. It was found that developed nonwoven fabrics had better sound insulation values at medium and high frequency, and there was no significant change in sound insulation value with increase in the ratio of low melting bonding polyester fibre. It is considered that the presence of central canal-like free space in the flax fibre, which is referred to as lumen can contribute to sound absorption. [3]

Figure2-Some of the Vegetable Fibres-Bitkisel Lif Örnekleri

Thilagavathi et al. compared sound and thermal insulation properties of the needle-punched nonwoven fabrics made from 100% pineapple fibre (PALF) and blend of pineapple/low melting bonding polyester fibre. It was found that nonwoven fabrics produced from the blending of pineapple fibres and low melting bonding PET fibre had better sound insulation properties. [13] Campeau et al. verified the hypothesis that hollowness of the fibre has only small effects on the acoustics of the material in his study. [14] Tang et al. found that the tailored cross-sections of synthetic fibres such as circle, hollow and triangle are beneficial to improve the acoustic properties of the material in his review study. [6] Ganesan and Karthik investigated the effects of blend ratio of cotton fibre with kapok and milkweed fibres, fabric weight and bulk density on acoustic properties of nonwoven fabric. It was found that there is a positive correlation between fabric weight in grams per square meter and sound reduction and negative correlation between bulk density and sound reduction. It should remember that the porosity of nonwoven fabric is a very significant parameter on sound reduction. [7] Liu et al. investigated the sound-absorbing properties of nonwoven composites made from kapok fibre with polypropylene fibre and hollow polyester fibre in the low-frequency region of 100-500Hz. It was found that kapok fibre had a superior acoustical property at low frequency. [15]

In this study, the sound absorption properties of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 from Polypropylene/Flax and Polypropylene/Hemp fibres in blending ratio of 50/50% were investigated in the frequency range of 100Hz to 5000Hz. Moreover, the influence of fabric weight on sound absorption properties of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 from PP/Hemp fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% were studied.

Figure3-Natural Fibre Reinforced Nonwoven Composites-Doğal Elyaf Takviyeli Dokunmamış Kumaş Esaslı Kompozit Ürünler

II. Materials and Method

II.1. Materials

Hemp and flax fibres were procured from local fibre producer in Romania. As the fine flax fibres used at yarn production in the textile industry are not cost-effective for the nonwoven industry, the coarse flax fibres were preferred in the production of nonwoven fabrics. The flax and hemp fibres were not treated with alkali solution before further processing.

The polypropylene fibre with 6.7dtex fineness and 75mm staple length was used in the study. The mechanical properties of fibres were tested according to “TSE EN ISO 5079 Textiles-Fibres-Determination of Breaking Force and Elongation at Break of Individual Fibres” standard. The mechanical properties and fineness values of the fibres used in the experimental study were given at Table1.

Table1-Mechanical Properties and Fineness Values of Fibres, Liflerin Mekanik Özellikleri ve İncelik Değerleri

  Tenacity

Mukavemet

(cN/tex)

Elongation

Uzama

(%)

   Fibre Fineness

Lif İnceliği

(tex)

Polypropylene (Polipropilen) 27,42 198,58              0,670
Flax (Keten) 45,72 4,5154 4,488
Hemp (Kenevir) 53,82 6,2860 6,941

II.2. Web Formation

The staple polypropylene fibres were blended with flax and hemp fibres in the ratio of 50/50% separately. The production study was carried out at industrial type needle punching line consisting of carding, cross lapper, pre-needling and needle punching machines instead of laboratory-type machines.

II.3. Web Bonding-Production of Needle Punched Nonwoven Fabrics

The webs were formed at the carding machine and overlapped at cross lapping machine according to required web weight. The carded webs in which the fibres are laid parallel to each other were pre-needled at punch density of 5punch/cm2. The pre-needled nonwoven fabrics were mechanically bonded by using two needle punching machines. The needle punched nonwoven fabrics were produced with punch densities of 50punch/cm2 and 45 punch/cm2 at needle punching machines respectively. The depth of needle penetration was determined to 10mm for all needle punching process.

Test Results

The values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics were measured by using BSWA TECH impedance tube system and method according to ASTM 1050-98 standard in the frequency range of 100-5000Hz. The nonwoven fabrics were cut into 100mm and 30mm diameters for measurements in low, medium and high-frequency ranges.

Figure4-The Values of Sound Absorption Coefficient of PP/Hemp Nonwoven Fabric-PP/Kenevir Esaslı Dokunmamış Kumaşların Ses Yutum Katsayısı Değerleri

Figure4 shows the influence of fabric weight on the sound absorption properties of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2, 2200g/m2 from hemp and staple polypropylene fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50%. The sound absorption results were given in the unit of the sound absorption coefficient. The values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics were measured in the frequency range of 100Hz to 5000Hz. It was seen that all needle punched nonwoven fabrics had lower sound absorption coefficient values in the low-frequency range.

As the nonwoven fabric weight in grams per square meter increased, it was observed that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of all nonwoven fabrics increased starting from 500Hz. This result can be explained with due to the higher number of fibres in nonwoven fabric structure and larger fibre surface area, thus longer tortuous path for sound waves to travel in nonwoven fabric structure. The damping of sound waves depends on the tortuous paths of fibres in the nonwoven fabric. [16]

It was remarkable that all of the PP/Hemp needle-punched nonwoven fabrics have exhibited poor sound absorption performance in the low-frequency range of 100-500Hz. It is suggested that the addition of viscous interlayer material with sound-proofing property could be used to increase the damping effect. [4] Sound absorption at low frequencies can be improved either by increasing the thickness of the sound absorbers and providing an air gap between the sound absorber and solid backing. [16], [17]

Figure5-Sound Absorption and Insulation Mechanisms-Ses Yutum ve Yalıtım Mekanizmaları

Figure6-The Values of Sound Absorption Coefficient of PP/Hemp and PP/Flax Nonwoven Fabric at 1300g/m2 Fabric Weight-1300g/m2 PP/Kenevir ve PP/Keten Esaslı Dokunmamış Kumaşların Ses Yutum Katsayısı Değerleri

In the Figure6, the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at 1300g/m2 fabric weight from PP/Flax and PP/Hemp fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% were compared in the frequency range of 100-5000Hz. It was seen that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of both of the needle-punched nonwoven fabrics increased continuously in the frequency range of 500Hz to 5000Hz. It was observed that the trends of the sound absorption coefficient graphs of both PP/Flax and PP/Hemp nonwoven fabrics were similar to each other. Both of the needle-punched nonwoven fabrics exhibited poor sound absorption performance in the low-frequency range of 100Hz to 500Hz. This result can be explained by the fact that the wavelength of the sound wave is longer and the propagation path of the sound wave is the shorter at low frequency.

Figure7-The Values of Sound Absorption Coefficient of PP/Hemp and PP/Flax Nonwoven Fabric at 1600g/m2 Fabric Weight-1600g/m2 PP/Kenevir ve PP/Keten Esaslı Dokunmamış Kumaşların Ses Yutum Katsayısı Değerleri

In the Figure7, the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at 1600g/m2 fabric weight from PP/Flax and PP/Hemp fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% were compared in the frequency range of 100-5000Hz. It was seen that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of both of the needle punched nonwoven fabrics increased continuously in the frequency range of 400 to 5000Hz. It was observed that PP/Flax nonwoven fabric had higher sound absorption coefficient values compared to PP/Hemp nonwoven fabric in the frequencies between 1250 and 4000Hz. It was seen that the sound absorption coefficient values of PP/Flax and PP/Hemp nonwoven fabrics were almost the same in the frequencies between 100Hz and 1000Hz.

Figure8-The Values of Sound Absorption Coefficient of PP/Hemp and PP/Flax Nonwoven Fabric at 2200g/m2 Fabric Weight-2200g/m2 PP/Kenevir ve PP/Keten Esaslı Dokunmamış Kumaşların Ses Yutum Katsayısı Değerleri

In the Figure8, the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at 2200g/m2 fabric weight from PP/Flax and PP/Hemp fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% were compared in the frequency range of 100Hz to 5000Hz. It was seen that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of both of the needle punched fabrics nonwoven increased continuously in the frequencies between 315Hz and 5000Hz. It was observed that PP/Flax nonwoven fabric had higher sound absorption coefficient values compared to PP/Hemp nonwoven fabric in the frequencies between 315 and 2500Hz. This result may be due to the fact that the flax fibres are finer than hemp fibres. As the flax fibres are finer than hemp fibres, the nonwoven fabric produced from flax fibres has a higher number of fibres. This leads to an increase in surface area of fibre in nonwoven fabric and higher sound absorbency. It was seen that PP/Flax and PP/Hemp needle punched nonwoven fabrics had low sound absorption coefficient values in the low-frequency range. This result can be explained by the fact that the wavelength of the sound wave is longer and the propagation path of the sound wave is the shorter at low frequency. As a result, dissipation of sound energy at lower frequencies is less and more dissipation in higher frequencies. Developed nonwoven fabrics can be used as effective sound absorptive materials for medium and high-frequency sound absorption applications. The nonwoven fabrics with higher sound absorption properties in the low-frequency range should be developed in the future.

III. Conclusion

In this study, the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 from PP/Flax and PP/Hemp fibres in blending ratio of 50/50% were compared in the frequency range of 100Hz to 5000Hz. Moreover, the influence of fabric weight on sound absorption property of needle punched nonwoven fabric produced hemp and polypropylene fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% was investigated. The nonwoven fabrics were produced by using industrial type the carding, cross lapping and needle punching machines.

It was observed that the PP/Flax needle-punched nonwoven fabrics had higher sound absorption coefficient values compared to PP/Hemp nonwoven fabric at 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 fabric weight in the medium and high-frequency range. This result could be due to the finer and more porosity structure of flax fibres compared to hemp fibres.

It was seen that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced from hemp and polypropylene fibres increased with the increase of fabric weight in grams per square meter. As the weight of nonwoven fabric in grams per square meter increased, it was seen that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics increased significantly due to the increasing number of fibres and fibre surface area in the nonwoven fabric structure. It should be emphasized once again that the nonwoven fabrics produced from finer fibres are ideal materials for sound absorption applications due to the fact that they have a higher total surface area.

References

1- Pasayev,N.; Kocatepe,S.; Maras,N.: (2018) “Investigation of Sound Absorption Properties of Nonwoven Webs Produced from Chicken Feather Fibers”, Journal of Industrial Textiles, Vol.48, Issue:10, pp.1616-1635

2- L.,Jiangbo; Z,Shangyong; T,Xiaoning : (2020) “Sound Absorption of Hemp Fibers Based Nonwoven Fabrics and Composites, Journal of Natural Fibres.

3- Muthukumar,N.; Thilagavathi,G.; Neelakrishnan,S.; Poovaragan,P.T.: “Sound and Thermal Insulation Properties of Flax/Low Melt PET Needle Punched Nonwovens”, Journal of Natural Fibres, 2019, Vol.16, No.2, pp.245-252.

4-Prahsarn,C.; Klinsukhon,W.; Suwannnamek,N.; Wannid,P.; Padee,S.: (2020) “Sound Absorption Performance of Needle Punched Nonwovens and Their Composites with Perforated Rubber”, SN Applied Sciences, 2020

5-Palak,H.; Karaguzel Kayaoglu,B.: (2020) “Analysis of the Effect of Fiber Cross Section and Different Bonding Methods on Sound Absorption Performance of PET Fiber Based Nonwovens Using Taguchi Method”, The Journal of the Textile Institute, 2020, Vol.111, No.4, pp.575-585.

6-Tang,X.; Yan,X.: (2017) “Acoustic Energy Absorption Properties of Fibrous Materials: A Review”, Composites Part A-Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol.101, pp.360-380

7-Ganesan,P.; Karthik,T.: (2016) “Development of Acoustic Nonwoven Materials from Kapok and Milkweed Fibres”, Journal of   Textile Institute, Vol.107, Issue:4, Apr, pp.477-482

8-Gomez,T.S.; Navacerrada,M.A.; Diaz,C.: (2020) “Fique Fibres as a Sustainable Material for Thermoacoustic Conditioning”, Applied Acoustics, Vol.164, No.UNSP 107240.

9-Guzdemir,O.; Bermudez,V.; Kanhere,S.: “Melt-Spun Poly(lactic acid) Fibers Modified with Soy Fillers: Toward Environment-Friendly Disposable Nonwovens”, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol.60, Issue:6, pp.1158-1168, Jun2020.

10-Zhang,J.; Khatibi,A.A.; Castanet,E.: “Effect of Natural Fibre Reinforcement on the Sound and Vibration Damping Properties of Bio-Composites Compression Moulded by Nonwovens Mats”, Composites Communications, Vol.13, pp.12-17, Jun2019.

11-Bhat,G.; El Messiry,M.: “Effect of Microfiber Layers on Acoustical Absorptive Properties of Nonwoven Fabrics”, Journal of Industrial Textiles, Vol.50, Issue:3, pp.312-332

12-Islam,S.; El Messiry,M.; Sikdar,P.P.; Seylar,J.; Bhat,G.: (2020) “Microstructure and Performance Characteristics of Acoustic Insulation Materials from Post-Consumer Recycled Denim Fabrics”, Journal of Industrial Textiles, DOI:10.1177/1528083720940746

13-Thilagavathi,G.; Muthukumar,N.; Krishnanan,S.N.; Senthilram,T.: (2019) “Development and Characterization of Pineapple Fibre Nonwovens fro Thermal and Sound Insulation Applications”, Journal of Natural Fibers, Vol.17, Isuue:10, pp.1391-1400.

14-Campeau,S.; Panneton,R.; Elkoun,S.: “Experimental Validation of an Acoustical Micro-Macro Model for Random Hollow Fibre Structures”, Acta Acustica United with Acustica, Vol.105, Issue1, Special Issue:SI, Jan-Feb 2019, pp.240-247

15-Liu,X.; Li,L.; Yan,X.: “Sound-Absorbing Properties of Kapok Fiber Nonwoven Composite at low Frequency”, 3rd International Conference o Textile Engineering and Materials, Aug 24-25, Dalian, Peoples R China, 2013.

16-Ramamoorthy,M.; Rengasamy,R.S.: “Study on the Effects of Denier and Shapes of Polyester Fibres on Acoustic Performance of Needle Punched Nonwovens with Air-Gap” The Journal of The Textile Institute, 2019, Vol.110, No.5, pp.715-723

17-Shoshani,Y.;Yakubov,Y.: “A Model for Calculating the Noise Absorption Capacity of Nonwoven Fibre Webs, Textile Research Journal, Vol.69(7), pp.519-526.

Global Success of Technical Textiles will be Reflected in HIGHTEX 2021

The nonwoven and technical textiles industry has become the focus of the whole world during the pandemic process. Most countries carried out works for these sectors with their investments, production and innovations.

During the pandemic process, a new one is added every day to the works for the nonwoven and technical textiles sector, whose importance is increasing in line with the needs. Turkey has become a center of  technical textiles by showing that its accumulation in these field and power.

In the Turkish technical textiles sector, which has an export market of 107 billion dollars worldwide and continues to break its own export record every month, R&D and innovation investments continue without slowing down. Technical textile exports, which increased by 77 percent in last November compared to the same month of the previous year, increased by 55 percent in January – November period and reached 2.5 billion dollars. Thus, technical and smart textiles and production technologies both attracted more attention and gained more importance in line with the needs of the pandemic process.

HIGHTEX 2021 Will Break A New Record

HIGHTEX 2021 International Technical Textiles and Nonwoven Fair, which will be held at Tüyap Fair and Congress Center on 22-26 June 2021, will be the exhibition where the latest technologies and products for nonwoven, technical and smart textiles which have become more important during the pandemic period and have become the focus of the whole world. Especially the products and technologies produced for the pandemic will attract more attention at the exhibition. HIGHTEX 2021 Exhibition, which will gather its exhibitors and visitors under one roof, will also allow new collaborations. At the same time, the exhibition, where developing technologies and products are exhibited, will provide a great advantage in terms of the formation of new business ideas.

HIGHTEX 2021, the first and only exhibition in Turkey in its field are expected to sign a new record in terms of number of exhibitors and visitors. You can visit www.hightexfairs.com website for more information about HIGHTEX 2021, which is preparing to attract more attention and host people than ever before.

Yozgat Bozok University Will Produce Industrial Hemp and Bring in the National Economy

Yozgat Bozok University, which has turned to scientific studies in hemp production, which is on the agenda of the country as a strategic agricultural product after it has been popularized recently, will bring in the benefits of hemp production to the national economy once they have the yields.

The cultivation of industrial hemp, which has a wide range of uses from textiles to the automobile industry, from construction materials to cosmetic products, from the energy sector to the food industry through biomass, is carried out by Bozok University in Yozgat and its surroundings. Yozgat Bozok University, which has become a specialized university in the field of ‘production of industrial hemp’ in order to spread hemp production throughout the country and bring it to the economy, started to work by experimenting with 16 varieties of cannabis, both domestic and foreign, in the center and neighborhood of Boğazlıyan district. In this context, the Hemp Research Institute was established within the university, and more than 100 academicians within the bodies of six research groups turned to scientific studies in the field of industrial hemp.

‘‘We have come a long way in a very short amount of time’’

Reminding that Yozgat Bozok University is the specialized university in the field of industrial hemp production as of January, the Rector of Yozgat Bozok University Prof. Dr. Ahmet Karadağ expressed the following statements regarding the subject, ‘‘The Higher Education Institute in Turkey delivered us the tasks related to the assessment of biomass as a mission in this area. Our goal is to ensure that hemp, which is an important plant with many uses, is brought into the economy. Yozgat Bozok University started the process for the evaluation of cannabis when it became a specialized university on the subject. We can confidently claim that we have come a long way in a very short amount of time. Companies that have reached a certain stage in the sector related to the production of hemp started to meet with us. We will have collaborations and partnerships with these companies in the near future. We are very excited about this. Because we are the only university with a mission in Turkey to bring in the economic benefits of hemp.’’

Rector Prof. Dr. Karadağ explained that they are conducting studies in order to produce a new generation battery using hemp and continued his statements as follows, ‘‘Cannabis can be used in a vast range of areas, some of them even hard to imagine. One such use is the energy sector. Especially the cellulose part of the biomass of cannabis can be utilized in the production of bioethanol, which has to be used at least 10 percent as a fuel additive in gasoline vehicles. Ethanol gained significant value, especially during the troublesome pandemic outbreak period. We will also use hemp in the production of the battery that we call super-capacitor, which is a new generation battery, in addition to the production of bioethanol.’’

‘‘We need legal regulations on hemp production’’

Bozok University Vice-Rector and Hemp Research Project Coordinator Prof. Dr. Güngör Yılmaz stated the following regarding the subject, ‘‘We are aware that cannabis has been produced in Anatolia for many years. Our endeavors have been ongoing for three years. We brought together both the representatives of the industry and scientists who will work in this subject area. Currently, every tiny piece of cannabis, from its root to its peak, is used by many different sectors and areas in the world. Sectors, in which a significant volume of trade has been carried out, have formed, and the medical sector is one of them. However, in order for these industries to be revived, we need legal regulations regarding industrial hemp production, especially in the medical sense. But unfortunately, we currently have some restrictions on how it works. At this point, we need the new current cannabis law, especially the law on drugs, to be reviewed and updated.’’

Bursa Will Have a Say in Composite Technologies Through IKMAMM

The Advanced Composite Materials Research and Excellence Center (IKMAMM) was established by the Bursa Chamber of Commerce and Industry (BTSO) in order to contribute to the sustainability of the sectors, which produce and use advanced composite materials, and to strengthen the R&D infrastructure of the industry.

Implemented in Demirtaş Organized Industrial Zone with an investment amounting to 17 million Turkish Lira, IKMAMM will serve industrialists both as an R&D and test center.

Mustafa Varank, the Minister of Industry and Technology, joined the opening ceremony of IKMAMM, which was established by BTSO with the support of Bursa Eskişehir Bilecik Development Agency (BEBKA), within the structure of Bursa Technology Coordination and R&D Center (BUTEKOM). IKMAMM, which will play a critical role in the transition of the industry of Bursa to technological products with higher added value and sectoral transformation, aims to make Bursa a base of technology in the field of composite materials, which are considered as the technology of the future.

Prototype Infrastructure with 20 Different Tests and 5 Different Methods

IKMAMM, which will lead R&D studies in the sector, will serve in a wide range of expertise from prototype production to testing and analysis activities. The center, which offers prototype infrastructure with 20 different tests and 5 different methods in the field of composites, draws attention especially with its strong equipment in the field of sample production. In the center, there are technologies available such as cleanroom, autoclave, RTM molding, thermoplastic molding presses, curing oven, pre-preg machine for composite materials.

Most Comprehensive Combustion Laboratory of Turkey

IKMAMM, possessing one of the most comprehensive combustion laboratories in Turkey, will enable the combustion tests of the equipment to be used in the rail systems, automotive, and aviation industries. Industrialists will be able to perform these tests, which they previously had to perform at high costs abroad, at IKMAMM in a fast and reliable way at much more affordable costs.

Active Support for University-Industry Collaboration

IKMAMM, in addition, will undertake an important mission at the point of developing university-industry collaboration. The center will enable the development of specific projects within the scope of university-industry cooperation with companies, which produce composite materials. The Ministry of Industry and Technology will provide technical support to 25 SMEs through IKMAMM in the next 3 years to develop and commercialize advanced technology products. In addition, within the scope of TÜBİTAK Industry-Doctorate Program, 23 doctoral students will work together with the researchers, R&D, and production processes expert IKMAMM team.

‘‘A New Structure Organizing the Composites Industry’’

Speaking at the opening ceremony of the center, which was organized with GUHEM, Mustafa Varank, the Minister of Industry and Technology stated that in the coming years, being mainly in automotive, composite materials would be used extensively in many sectors such as textile, defense, aviation, and rail systems because of their superior endurance and environmentally friendly qualities. Emphasizing that developing composite materials requires very serious knowledge accumulation and R&D infrastructure, Minister Varank continued his statement as follows, ‘‘We established IKMAMM so that the industry of Bursa can acquire new capabilities in developing these materials. The companies will have the opportunity to carry out the R&D activities, which they cannot realize in-house, by using the infrastructures here. We need to see this place not only as a research center but also as a new structure organizing the composites industry. We will accelerate the commercial development of the companies through the capabilities of the center. Therefore, we are bringing in an infrastructure that offers much more than R&D. In other words, we both improve the existing capabilities of the industry and enable it to acquire new capabilities.’’

‘‘An Investment Made in the Future of Bursa’’

Bursa Chamber of Commerce and Industry Chairman İbrahim Burkay expressed that they have taken decisive steps with the goal of creating a leading Bursa that produces high technology and added value since the day he took the office. Burkay stated that, through IKMAMM, they aim to improve the production capability of industrialists in Bursa in the composite materials sector, which is a very strategic field. He continued with the following statements, ‘‘With the vision, which we have put forward as BTSO, we aim to direct our industrialists to high value-added business areas. In addition to our traditional sectors such as automotive, textile, and machinery, our target is to make Bursa a global player in sectors such as rail systems, composite, aviation, and defense. At this point, IKMAMM is a very important investment in the future of our city. Our companies in the composite sector, which is called the material of the future, will have the opportunity to develop these technologies starting today.’’

‘‘We Will Establish Two More Excellence Centers’’

The Chairman Burkay noted that IKMAMM, the second center of excellence they brought to Bursa after the Textile and Technical Textile Center of Excellence within the body BUTEKOM, has a strong R&D infrastructure required for the production and development of original products in the composite sector. He finalized his remarks on the subject with the following statements, ‘‘We expect all industrialists to benefit from the facilities of our center. We aim to bring two more excellence centers to Bursa in the fields of nanotechnology and micromechanics-microelectronics in the near future.’’

The First International Exhibition Held in Tüyap Fair Area During the Pandemic Period Attracted Intense Interest

Following the global pandemic period, Turkey’s first international fair opening its doors as WOODTECH Wood Processing Machines, Cutting Tools and Hand Tools Fair, it is held at Tüyap Istanbul Fair and Congress Center on October 10-14, 2020. At the exhibition, where a large number of visitors come from domestic and abroad, the measures taken at every point from the entrance ensure the highest level of protection for all participants and visitors.
Tüyap Fair and Congress Center which has Turkey’s first and only ‘TSE Covid-19 Secure Service Certificate’ began a reliable way to host international exhibitions.

HIGHTEX 2021 International Nonwoven and Technical Textiles Fair which will be held on 22 – 26 June 2021, is preparing to host its domestic and foreign participants and visitors in a hygienic, reliable and health-oriented environment within the framework of all the measures taken in the fair area. Preparation for our exhibitions continue at full speed.

Eruslu Nonwoven Group Ordered Spunlace Line from Andritz

International Technology Group Andritz has received an order from Eruslu Nonwoven Group to supply a complete neXline spunlace line for its plant located in Gaziantep.

The line has a production capacity of 18,000 t/a and is scheduled for installation and start-up at the beginning of 2021.

This new spunlace eXcelle line will be able to process a wide range of fibers, like polyester, viscose, lyocell, and bleached cotton, with grammages from 30 up to 75 gsm. It will produce high-quality wet wipes for cosmetics applications, fem care and baby diapers, dust wipes, hair dressing towels, medical bandages and gauzes, and many other products. The new line will enable Eruslu to diversify its product portfolio into new technical applications.

Andritz will deliver a complete line, from web forming to drying.

The scope of supply includes:

  • One complete set of Laroche opening and blending machinery,
  • Two inline high-speed TT cards,
  • One JetlaceEssentiel unit, which is the benchmark for hydroentanglement processes, Including an Andritz full filtration unit,
  • One neXdry double drum through-air dryer,
  • One neXecodry S1 system for energy saving

The Fourth Spunlace Line Order

Andritz and Eruslu have a long-term and successful collaboration that began in 2009. This is the fourth spunlace line to be provided by Andritz, and it confirms the strong partnership between the two companies.

Eruslu Nonwoven Group, established in 1972, is a leading Turkish company specialized in the production of various textile products. In the nonwovens sector, the Group provides disposable products for the home cleaning and health sectors.

Güney Biomedical Takes Its Place in the Medical Textile Sector with Mask Production

Güney Biomedical, which is a sub-branch of the Teknik Fuarcılık Group, seized its place among the companies engaged in the textile sector by making new breakthroughs in the coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic outbreak. Güney Biomedical, which has just entered to manufacturing experience, produces approximately 250 thousand masks every day.

Many businesses during the troublesome Coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic period conducted studies on textile products such as protective masks, gloves, surgical coveralls that protect against the spread of the pandemic. Güney Biomedical, having started its production life with a capacity of manufacturing 250 thousand masks per day, sold a large volume of products in spite of its new establishment. Moreover, the company’s efforts towards exports continue at full speed.

Güney Biomedical, producing masks in the standards of European Union countries, also attaches great importance to production in a hygienic and sterile environment. The company uses the HEPA filter air conditioner and ventilation system used by the European Union countries during the manufacturing process of the protective masks in its production area and produces its masks in a fashion that is entirely for human health.

Production takes place in a hygienic environment

Güney Biomedical, in addition to being especially hygienic, attaches significant importance to the comfortable use of the masks produced under the brand name of ‘besafe’.

The manufacturing stages of the masks takes place as follows:

The masks, which are prepared by employees equipped with special outfits, are untouched and consist of three layers of fabric. These masks are then fitted with polypropylene (pp) coated soft and adjustable nose wires through the utilization of a special system in ultrasonic devices. Later on, these masks are steered to the unit where the tires are attached. Masks fitted with tires on special machines are delivered to the quality and control team. Masks, which are approved by the quality and control department, are sorted and packaged in the packaging machine.

Güney Biomedical manufactures four types of masks, which consist of three layers of spunbond (blue and white) and three layers of meltblown (blue and white). The inner surface of the mask consists of a soft absorbent and hypoallergenic nonwoven layer. In the middle layer; there is spunbond/meltblown filter nonwoven fabric and the outer layer has hydrophobic spunbond nonwoven fabric. The masks that eliminate pressure on the ears through the usage of the comfortable elastic ear loop, do not hurt or cause any cuts in the ear thanks to the latex-free round rubbers and nonwoven fabrics. These masks, which protect against viruses, air pollution, dust and pollen, do not cause allergic reactions because of their hygienic manufacturing processes and quality materials.

Elastic Nonwovens and Application Areas

Deniz Duran1, Hatice Aktekeli2

1Ege University – Faculty of Engineering – Textile Engineering Department.35100 Bornova, İzmir/TÜRKİYE

2Ege University – Faculty of Engineering – Textile Engineering Department., 35100 Bornova, İzmir/TÜRKİYE

deniz.duran@ege.edu.tr

 

Elastic Nonwovens and Application Areas

Abstract

Nonwoven surfaces have become one of the fastest-growing textile branches in recent years, which significantly stems from the practical use of disposable products, and awareness on its importance in terms of hygiene. It is desired that nonwoven surfaces used in some areas should have high flexibility in terms of comfort and ease of use and maintain this flexibility. For this reason, there is a day-by-day increasing interest in flexible nonwoven surfaces. In this study, the definition of flexible nonwoven surfaces, methods for obtaining flexible nonwoven surfaces and their application areas are specified.

Key Words:Nonwoven surface; Flexible nonwoven surface; Elastic nonwovens; Thermoplastic elastomer.

  1. INTRODUCTION

In the globalizing world, it has become a necessity to manufacture innovative products for the development of our industry and economy. Cost and speed are two of the most important factors in the production phase. In this area, nonwoven surfaces allow us to find fast, easy, effective and economical solutions to problems with their wide use at every stage of modern life. Nonwoven surface products offer manufacturers the advantage of simplicity in the manufacturing process and the ability to apply desired qualities (absorbent/retaining, soft/stretched etc.) to nonwoven surface products as they require a manufacturing process simpler than the conventional textile fabrics. [1]

Nonwoven surface products, which are manufactured in a fashion both faster and cheaper, are being used more ever day in new areas. Especially the increase in the practical use and usage habits of disposable products allow mobility in the nonwoven surface industry and caused the market to grow. When examining Turkey’s 22 main product groups in the technical textiles export, it is observed that nonwoven surface products constitute the most exported product groups of Turkey’s technical textile exports. Nonwoven surface products which form 30,9% of Turkey’s total exports of technical textiles (nonwoven) exports in 2017 were valued at approximately 479 million dollars, increasing by 9,5%. When examining the technical textiles imports in Turkey’s 22 basic product groups, it is seen that nonwoven surface products are the second imported products with 11,5% after glas fiber and their products. In 2017, imports of nonwoven surface products increased by 12% to approximately $ 220 million. [1, 2]

Demand for nonwoven surface products is increasing day by day and it is predicted that over the coming years the numbers will exceed today’s value. [3]

In the field of nonwoven products, products with a high degree of flexibility at low cost is constantly needed. these nonwoven products are being produced especially for disposable diapers, sick cloths and also areas such as lining, and filtration. They are preferred for flexibility, softness, durability, good stretch-backing properties and high tearing elongation features. [4]

There are also literature studies on elastic nonwovens –an important issue in innovations which have taken place in the nonwoven surface area in recent years.

In a study by Srinivas et al., they treated polypropylene homopolymer and thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) under the same conditions and observed a marked difference in elongation properties. The polypropylene homopolymer is only 35% elongated, while the surfaces produced with thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) can be elongated up to 360%. According to Srinivas et al., molecular parameters such as molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, composition, melting temperature and crystallinity grade affect the elastic behavior of the polymer. The elasticity of the web is related to the molecular weight and the specific elastomeric composition. As expected, low crystallinity requires high elasticity. As the level of crystallinity increases, the mechanical behavior of the polymer changes from an elastomeric character to a plastic one.[5]

Zhao states in his work that the industry focused on the meltblown process to develop unique fiber and surface properties using special polymers, and that many factors are needed to develop high-value meltblown products, among which polymer properties, targeted areas of use of the product, and properties and capabilities of meltblown equipment are mentioned. Polypropylene nonwovens produced with the meltblown method have attracted more attention in areas such as hygiene, medical and personal care products with high flexibility of nonwovens made of elastic raw material, although they may have one-sided stretching properties. [6]

Dharmarajan et al., used the meltblown method in their work for surface preparation and have blended thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) and classical polypropylene on some samples. Inclusion of polypropylene thermoplastic elastomer increases the elongation of the nonwoven surface. Surface elasticity increases with increasing TPE ratio. Even 30% weight of TPE content makes the surface softer and drapery than polypropylene. In the light of these results, they have stated that meltblown elastic nonwovens containing TPE polymers have offered a new elastomeric product, which can be used in hygiene, personal care, medicine and industrial applications. [7]

Li et al. used the thermoplastic elastomer in their study to produce a surface with the meltblown method. According to Li et al., the elastic meltblown nonwovens have incomparable advantages over ordinary meltblown surface. Therefore, they have stated that this material is the new favorite in the nonwoven industry and elastic nonwovens produced with the meltblown method using TPE are high elastic materials which can solve the low elasticity problem of the conventional nonwovens. [8]

 

  1. ELASTIC NONWOVENS

Materials imposed to deformeation under pressure (elongation/ change of form) and reverted to its original state when unpressured are called elastic materials, and such deformations are called as elastic deformation. Mechanical creep (almost) does not occur. [9]

Elastic nonwovens are products, which exhibit superior elongation/reversibility compared to conventional nonwoven surfaces. While the elasticity on the conventional nonwoven surfaces is around 30%, it can reach 300% on elastic nonwoven surfaces. [5]

The limited resilience of the surfaces produced using conventional synthetic raw materials causes limitations in their usage and application. On surfaces produced using special thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), this problem can be avoided and highly elastic surfaces can be created (Figure 1). This will allow limitations and combine with the advantages of meltblown method to find a more common and convenient area of use. [6]

Elastic nonwoven surface before stretching     Elastic nonwoven surface after stretching

Figure 1. Elastic nonwoven surface before and after stretching [10]

2.1. Elastic Nonwoven Production Methods

Elasticity can be achieved in the texture in different ways. The most important ones are:

2.1.1. Customized voluminous design for nonwoven web structure

Voluminous web structure can be achieved by needle method in particular. In this method, the fibers are laid smoothly on top of each other to form a surface and fixed with special needles to form a web surface. However, the surfaces produced in this method can be too thick and show little flexibility.

2.1.2. Achieving elasticity in materials using crimp fibers

As the crimp fibers on surfaces produced by using crimp fibers are opened under pressure, the surface will stretch and revert to its original state when unpressured. However, the flexibility obtained by this method is very insufficient.

2.1.3. Production using special meltblown method with raw materials

The meltblown method does not require a special preparation process to form the surface, nor does it need to prepare any solution to draw fibers. Fibers are taken directly from the polymers.

In the meltblown method, the special thermoplastic material (TPE) is heated in the extruder and melted up to the temperature and viscosity to provide the fiber formation. The melt is sprayed through the nozzle holes at high speed with a flow of hot air, and these micro-sized fibers become cool and solidify as they move towards the pick-up cylinder. The solidified fibers randomly orientated in the picking cylinder create the elastic nonwoven surface. [11]

2.1.4. Production with finishing operations such as coating

The nonwoven surface is created by covering one or both sides of the surface with a chemical substance. The chemical materials are applied on the surface in the form of powder, paste or foam to form a film layer on the ground. [12]

2.1.5. Production with composite technology

Composite materials are a group of material, which are created by bringing together at least two different materials for a specific purpose. The purpose in this three-dimensional assembling feature is to create a feature, which is not present in any of the components alone. In other words, it is aimed to produce a material with superior properties for the desired components. [13]

The elasticity of the web produced with the first two methods is limited while they have excessive thickness. Flexibility of the web obtained with the coating method is not at the desired level. It has been seen that problems are solved in the web produced using TPE chips. [8]

  1. THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMER (TPE) – RAW MATERIAL FOR ELASTIC NONWOVENS

Crosslinked rubbery polymers, or rubbery webbands, which exhibit very high elongation under tensile force and revert to their original initial length when the force is lifted, are called elastomers. The most commonly used and known elastomers are polyisoprene (or natural rubber), polybutadiene, polyisobutylene and polyurethane.

Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE’s) are polymers that exhibit elastomer behaviors, even though they do not have chemical cross-links between their molecules.

The physical cross-links in the TPEs constitute the webbing structure by interlocking the flexible molecules together. They can be processed as thermoplastics at high temperatures and exhibit elastomeric behavior when cooled (Figure 2). The transition from thermoplastic behavior to elastomeric behavior is completely reversed, i.e. unlike conventional elastomers, thermoplastic elastomers can be processed repeatedly, so they can be recycled. [14]

Thermoplastic elastomers contain two distinct phases in their texture:

  • Elastomeric phase with rubber features
  • Rigid phase with thermoplastic features. [14]

Figure 2. Temperature change in the thermoplastic elastomer structure [15]

 

  1. APPLICATION AREAS OF ELASTIC NONWOVENS

Elastic nonwovens find use in the fields of filtration, medicine and hygiene as soft protective cap, lining and gloves.

  • Medicine and Hygiene

Research and development studies in both fiber types, in which materials used in medicine and hygiene applications are produced, and in the production techniques of such materials, cause the increase in the use of medicine and hygiene textiles in all technical textiles every day. [16]

The fastest developments in medicine and hygiene textiles have occurred after the discovery of synthetic fibers. Rapid developments have been achieved with the invention nonwoven products in the 1960s, and improving a 56% reduction in the risk of infection transmission with the use of disposable products in 1985. [17]

 

The most important use of nonwovens is the hygiene industry. In a report published by  EDANA – European Nonwoven Producers Association, 35 billion products have been sold in the European hygiene market in 1997, 90 billion in 2004 and 211 billion in 2013 (Figure 3). [18]

Figure 3. The number of nonwoven products sold in the European hygiene market

 

Especially the elastic nonwoven medical bandages exhibit excellent stretching, wrap the wound well, hel healing quickly and leave only a small trace. Patients using them feel comfortable and at ease.

Its porous structure allows skin moisture to penetrate and the skin to breathe. Its elastic structure easily conforms to body folds and joints.

 

In addition, these elastic nonwoven materials also find use in areas such as patients and diapers (Fig. 4), menstrual pads, and in hospital equipment such as surgical disposals and gowns that require disposability, non-slipperiness and elasticity. [8]

Figure 4. Patient diaper with elastic nonwoven materials [19]

 

  • Soft Stretching Caps

It significantly increases comfort, safety and work efficiency for workers. It is non-irritant, soft-textured and has high tensile strength with low shrinkage force. They have a breathable structure for perfect comfort and ease. It provides excellent barrier treatment and filtration performance (Figure 5).

  • For use in construction, mining, health and waste management to prevent dirt, dust, airborne particles and airborne liquids,
  • For protection against dust, bacteria and harmful chemicals in laboratories and factories,
Figure 5. Caps with elastic nonwoven material [10]
  • For shielding against outdoor activities, wind and rain,
  • In order to provide good bacteria and particulate filtration in medical use,
  • It can be used for undercoating in hard caps, emergency respiratory masks and other face protection equipment. [10]

Undercoating

A study conducted by researchers at the University of Tennessee, USA, of Materials Science and Engineering reveals that the use of elastic nonwoven as a primer in military apparel shows better filtering features against chemical and biological threats.

Also, undercoating made of such structures in sportswear and women’s clothing helps show the body better. [8]

  • Filtration

These structures, produced using microfiber fibers, have great market share thanks to their superior filtration performance.

These elastic nonwovens, which can also be used in production of masks, provide protection against gas, dust and bacteria in the medical field by preventing harmful granules (Figure 6). Also these filters can be used in AC units, automobiles and engines[8].

 

Figure 6. Mask with elastic nonwoven material [20]

  • Gloves

Elastic nonwoven gloves are used in pharmaceutical factories and research laboratories, where high protection is required thanks to their excellent stretching, absorbing and filtering features. [8]

  1. CONCLUSION

Elastic nonwovens provide balanced mechanical features thanks to better elongation for increased flexibility, higher impact strength, higher melt flow rate for easier machining, lower cost and higher performance in comparison with conventional nonwovens. Especially on machine applications, they exhibit better breaking resilience and tearing prolongation. [21]

Thanks to these features, the application area for elastic nonwovens is growing day by day. The studies conducted in this area is also increasing every day. Interest and researches in the elastic nonwovens, which is considered to be one of the important branches in nonwoven industry, are increasing thanks to the improvements in living standards rising with awareness on the importance of  disposable products especialy for health, advanced level of improved product performances and the R&D activities conducted by the leading companies to grow their market domination.

RESOURCES

[1]KDR Tekstil, http://www.kdrtekstil.com.tr/bilgi-3.php (Erişim tarihi: 13.05.2016)

[2]ITKIB, Teknik Tekstil Sektörüne İlişkin Güncel Bilgiler, Mart 2015, http://www.itkib.org.tr/ihracat/DisTicaretBilgileri/raporlar/dosyalar/2015/TEKNIK_TEKSTIL_SEKTORUNE_ILISKIN_GUNCEL_BILGILER-MART_2015.pdf (Erişim tarihi: 05.04.2016)

[3]Textotex, Hijyen Uygulamalarında Nonwoven Teknolojisi, http://www.textotex.com/haber/tekniktekstil/hijyen-uygulamalarinda-nonwoven-teknolojisi.html (Erişim tarihi: 03.11.2015)

[4]Boggs L., Elastic polyetherester nonwoven web, 1987, US 4707398 A.

[5]Srinivas, S., Cheng, C. Y., Dharmarajan, N. and Racine G., 2005, “Elastic Nonwoven Fabrics from Polyolefin Elastomers”, http://faculty.mu.edu.sa/public/uploads/1426341765.4035Elastic_Nonwoven_Fabrics.pdf (Erişim tarihi: 10.10.2015)

[6]Zhou R., 2004, Stretching the Value of Melt Blown with Cellulose Microfiber and Elastic Resins, Biax Fiberfilm Corporation, 13p.

[7]Dharmarajan R., Kacker S., Gallez V., Westwood A.D. and Cheng C.Y., Meltblown Elastic Nonwovens from Specialty Polyolefin Elastomers, ExxonMobil Chemical Company, 3p.

[8]Li L., Zhang J., Li S. and Qian X., 2011, Research Progress of Elastic Nonwovens with Meltblown Technology, Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 332-334, 1247-1252pp.

[9]Yalçınkaya E., Elastisite Teorisi(Stress-Strain) Gerilme-Deformasyon İlişkisi, https://iujfk.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/3-ders-elastisite.pdf, (Erişim Tarihi: 28.04.2016)

[10]Vitaflex, http://vitaflexllc.com/index.html, (Erişim Tarihi: 19.10.2015)

[11]Atul Dahiya, M., Kamath, G. and  Raghavendra, R., 2004, Meltblown Technology, http://www.engr.utk.edu/mse/Textiles/Melt%20Blown%20Technology.htm (Erişim tarihi: 13.10.2015)

[12]Bulut Y., Sülar V., 2008, Kaplama veya Laminasyon Teknikleri ile Üretilen Kumaşların Genel Özellikleri ve Performans Testleri, Tekstil ve Mühendis, Sayı:70-71, 5-16.

[13]Kompozit Malzemeler Hakkkında Her şey, http://www.bilgiustam.com/kompozit-malzemeler-hakkinda-hersey/(Erişim Tarihi: 21.09.2016)

[14]Esen, M., “Termoplastik Elastomerler”, http://www.kimyam.net/2012/09/elastomer-nedir.html (Erişim tarihi: 26.10.2015)

[15]Deniz V., Karakaya N., Karaağaç B., Aytaç A. ve Gümüş S., 2008, Stirenik Termoplastik Elastomer Malzeme Geliştirilmesi, TÜBİTAK MAG Proje 107M412, 58s.

[16]Ilgaz S., Duran D., Mecit D., Bayraktar G., Gülümser T. ve Tarakçıoğlu I., Medikal Tekstiller, Tekstil Teknik Dergisi, Şubat 2007, Yıl-23, Sayı 265, 138-162.

[17]Güney S., 2009, Peristaltik Hareket Sağlayan Tıbbi Tekstil Materyalinin Geliştirilmesi ve Bilgisayarlı Kontrolü, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Isparta, 70s.

[18]Anonim, 2010, Nonwoven Tekniği ile Hijyenik, http://www.bilgilerforumu.com/forum/konu/nonwoven-teknigi-ile-hijyenik.630333/,  (Erişim Tarihi: 10.02.2016)

[19]Can Kimya, http://www.tamtut.com/tr/fullbond-urunler/20/yetiskin-ve-hasta-bezi-hotmelt-yapistiricilari, (Erişim Tarihi: 30.09.2016)

[20]ASM Medical, http://www.asmmedical.com/cat/aile-hekimligi-sarf-malzemeleri/sayfa/2, (Erişim Tarihi: 30.09.2016)

[21]ExxonMobil Chemical, 2010, Vistamaxx™ propylene-based elastomer,

http://www.ktron.com/News/Seminars/Plastics/Houston/Vistamaxx_-_PBE-An_innovation_for_the_masterbatch_industry.cfm, (Erişim Tarihi: 24.09.2015)