DiloGroup at ITM and HIGHTEX 2022 with High Speed Needlelooms for Spunbonds

DiloGroup, one of the leading companies in the field of staple fiber nonwoven production lines, will showcase its innovations in the field of high-speed needlelooms for spunbonds and complete lines.

International textile producers meet again in Istanbul, Turkey, from June 14 – 18, 2022 on the occasion of the ITM + HIGHTEX Exhibition. Especially in Hall 9 (HIGHTEX) the exhibitors will present the complete industry value chain from nonwovens raw materials,

production machines and accessories to the endproduct. The related industries covered include hygiene, filtration, fabrics and apparel, medical, automotive, wipes, home furnishings and upholstery. DiloGroup offers tailor-made production systems from one supplier and will inform on booth 905A about its portfolio and the latest equipment developments from fibre opening to the finished felt.

Hyperpunch HαV allows a more uniform stitch distribution

A new, simplified elliptical needle beam drive makes Hyperpunch technology also attractive for standard application. Hyperpunch HαV allows a more uniform stitch distribution in the preneedling process especially in combination with the new needle pattern 6000X. In a complete needling line this felt homogenization process can be improved further. The new needle pattern 8000X is a milestone in the needle pattern development process and results in endproduct surfaces with low markings over a wide range of advances/stroke.

Another strong pillar of our sales program over decades has been fibre preparation and high speed webforming equipment for other nonwoven technologies. During these years, there has been a shift to higher throughput rates, and in some cases in Asia, a requirement for improved MD/CD strength ratios of hydroentangled products. In addition, the company’s further development of the high-speed layering principle “Hyperlayer” made considerable progress for better CD strength through a combination of inline cards and crossline card with crosslapper. Particularly, carding machines in a working width above 3.5 m up to 5.1 m have been supplied by DiloSpinnbau as complete high speed carding systems, comprising two or even three cards in a line to directly feed the hydroentangling units of various suppliers.

Together with DiloTemafa not only have high throughput rates been achieved in the fibre preparation section of the line but also dedusting filtering and air-conditioning systems have been successfully engineered and integrated.

Until recently, Dilo did not supply complete lines including water-jet units, ovens and end-ofline equipment to the important hydroentanglement market segment. This has changed and Dilo is glad to confirm the partnership with Sicam, Italy. Together with Sicam, we have combined know-how for hydroentangling technology and therefore can provide complete lines as general contractor including equipment for cutting, winding and packaging.

The 3D-Lofter technology achieves a better homogeneity

Another interesting machine is the 3D-Lofter, first presented during ITMA 2019 in Barcelona, which offers a wider range of nonwovens applications by exploring the third dimension. A series of single web forming units which work according to the aerodynamic web forming principle deliver defined fibre masses in varied patterns on a base needlefelt. A stress oriented production of technical formed parts resulting in fibre savings or patterned DI-LOUR or DI-LOOP felts with or without repeat are two examples for this technology which explores new application areas for needlefelts. The 3D-Lofter technology may also be used “inverted” as “IsoFeed” for filling up bad spots in web mats and thus achieves a better homogeneity of spunlace or airlay products.

The DiloLine 4.0 concept offer I4.0 modules which not only support the user but also facilitate quality control and maintenance by a maximum data transparency in production and control of operation. The Dilo solutions “Smart Start” for a fully automatic start of the production line or “DI-LOWATT” for energy savings are accompanied by Siemens solutions which can be selected via App or Data Cloud “MindSphere”.

With more than 400 installations delivered to the nonwovens industry worldwide, DiloGroup has the necessary know-how and the complete equipment portfolio to engineer the perfect production line for any product specification. The efficiency of Dilo production lines is the result of long-term research work and experience.

Synthetic Polymer Leads the Technical Textile Market

The “Technical Textile Market Size, Market Share, Application Analysis, Regional Outlook, Growth Trends, Key Players, Competitive Strategies and Forecasts, 2021 to 2029” report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com’s offering. The global technical textile market is expected to grow at CAGR of 8.0 % within the forecast period of 2021 to 2029.

This research report presents the analysis of each segment from 2019 to 2029 considering 2020 as the base year for the research. Compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) for each respective segment is calculated for the forecast period from 2021 to 2029.

The demand for textile is increasing as per the needs & its application. Consumers are expecting better quality of textiles along with their sustainable property. These textiles are known for their superior characteristics over their traditional equivalents and are utilized for specific functionalities. Characteristics and features such as superior technical performance, higher strength and versatility make them desirable for numerous commercial use, domestic use and industrial use.

A major advance in textiles technology was the invention of polyamide, more commonly known as nylon. This synthetic material can be pulled into very thin strands when heated and spun just like natural textiles, and is now used extensively as a fabric in clothing. The technical textiles have high quality over other textiles.

The industry grows significantly as there is wide range of application in the industry. Major brands in textile industry have emerged cause of technical textile & have gained growth in revenue over time. The trend in textile industry leads the technical textile to new highs ensuring wide application & sales. The technical industry is expected to grow over time.

Synthetic Polymer Market Expected to Grow Significantly in the Future

Nowadays, natural fibres are used to replace synthetic fibres because of environmental concern as reinforced material in polymer composites for engineering materials. Synthetic polymer plays a vital role in textile industry as it has dynamic properties & is also known as sustainable material. Synthetic fibre-reinforced polymer composites provide high-strength & stiffness materials that are widely accepted as aerospace components and automotive industries.

Synthetic polymers are made from raw materials such as petroleum, based on chemicals or petrochemicals. The application of synthetic polymer is used in bullet proof vests, heat resistant garments, high performance sporting goods, heavy-lifting lines, tow cables and so on. The synthetic polymer accounted for 60% of the market in 2019 and will grow significantly in future. Synthetic fibre followed by natural fibre, regenerated fibre & other fibres are used in various regions across globe.

Technology & Innovation Drives the Market

Technology & innovations leads the technical textile in wide range of application in constructions, medical, sports, industries, agriculture, mobile, automobile & apparel industries. The technology has made the technical material durable & sustainable. The global growth rate of technical textiles is about 4% per year greater than the growth of home and apparel textiles, which are growing at a rate of 1% per year.

Currently, technical textile materials are most widely used in filters, clothing, furniture, hygiene, medical and construction products. Knitting, weaving, braiding, non-woven & tufting are the techniques used in production of technical textile. Other than these, Thermo-forming, 3D (Three Dimensional) weaving, 3D knitting, fabrics produced using nanotechnology, heat-set synthetics, finishing treatments (coating and lamination), handmade elements such as stitch/applique are some of the process used in wide range of application in the industry.

Technical Textile Market Revives During Pandemic

Pandemic affected the demand & manufacturing of technical textile, a there was extreme need for healthcare apparels along with mask on large scale. The demand & supply lowered in some industries & reached its peak in the medical sector. The chemicals required for production of technical textile were also affected. Post easing of lockdowns, led to increase in sales. The sales of textile have increased through online platforms & over the counter.

 

HIGHTEX Postponed, New Dates: 14-18 June 2022

HIGHTEX International Technical Textiles and Nonwoven Trade Fair, which is planned to be held on June 22-26, 2021 was decided to postpone to June 14-18, 2022, considering the effects of the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic in the world. This postponement decision was taken as a result of intense discussions and evaluations with our participants and sector representatives.

The HIGHTEX Organization Team made the following statements: “We as HIGHTEX Organization Team, our priority is to protect your valuable exhibitors and visitors’ investments and all rights, not our commercial earnings. In this regard, we believe that all of our participants will find this compulsory postponement decision taken for the HIGTEX Exhibition justified and will understand.”

HIGHTEX 2022, which will be held in Istanbul Tuyap Fair and Congress Center between 14- 18 June 2022, simultaneously with the ITM 2022 Exhibition.

HIGHTEX 2022 being the first and only exhibition in its field in Turkey will host the world’s leading technical textile and nonwoven manufacturers in Istanbul for 5 days.

HIGHTEX 2022, where many companies from Turkey and abroad will exhibit their latest technologies and products; will be visited by many industry professionals from medical to ready-to-wear, from decoration to cosmetics, from automotive to defense.

 

Facemasks As the Latest Wearable Sensors

Colour-changing strips integrated into nonwoven facemasks that work on the same principle as pregnancy testing kits may soon be used to detect Covid-19 in a user’s breath or saliva.

A University of California San Diego project, which received $1.3 million from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), is aimed at providing simple, affordable and reliable surveillance for Covid-19 infections that can be done daily and easily implemented in resource-poor settings. It is part of the NIHRapid Acceleration of Diagnostics Radical (RADx-rad) programme.

“In many ways, masks are the perfect ‘wearable’ sensor for our current world,” says Jesse Jokerst, professor of nanoengineering at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering and principal investigator of the project. “We’re taking what many people are already wearing and repurposing them, so we can quickly and easily identify new infections and protect vulnerable communities.”

The test strips, that can be put on any mask, are being designed to detect the presence of protein-cleaving molecules, called proteases, produced from infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

The idea is that as the user breathes through the mask, particles – including SARS-CoV-2 proteases if the user is infected – will accumulate in the test strip. At the end of the day or during a mask change, the user will conduct the test. The test strip is equipped with a blister pack that the user squeezes, releasing nanoparticles that change colour in the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 proteases. A control line on the test strip will show what a positive result should look like. This would be similar to checking the results of a home pregnancy test.

“Think of this as a surveillance approach, similar to having a smoke detector in the house,” said Jokerst. “It would just sit in the background every day and if it gets triggered, then you know there’s a problem and that’s when you would look into it with more sophisticated testing,”

The test strips can be easily mass produced via roll-to-roll processing to keep costs down to a few cents per strip.

“We want this to be affordable enough for daily testing,” Jokerst said. “This would allow facilities at high risk such as group homes, prisons, dialysis clinics and homeless shelters to monitor for new infections earlier and more frequently to reduce spread.”

Jokerst is teaming up with researchers at UC San Diego School of Medicine to test the strips first on Covid-19-positive saliva samples, then on patients and healthcare workers at Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System.

“The proteases we’re detecting here are the same ones present in infections with the original SARS virus from 2003 as well as the MERS virus, so it would not be too far of a stretch to imagine that we could still benefit from this work later on should future pandemics emerge,” he said. “Even with vaccination efforts underway, this surveillance approach could be deployed in parts of the world where vaccines are not yet available or still limited in distribution.

 

Sound Absorption Properties of Natural Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Needle-Punched Nonwoven Fabrics Used in Automotive Interior

Zeliha ÇAVUŞ; *Mustafa Sabri ÖZEN; Aysun GENÇTÜRK;

Serdar EVİRGEN; *Mehmet AKALIN

SİTEKS, Sismanlar Textile Company, Saray, TEKIRDAG

*Marmara University, Technology Faculty, Textile Engineering Department, Kadıköy, İSTANBUL

Abstract

In this study, the properties of sound absorption of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 by blending of polypropylene fibres with flax and hemp fibres separately in the ratio of 50/50% were investigated. The sound absorption properties of produced nonwoven fabrics were measured in the frequency range of 100-5000Hz, and the results were given in the unit of the sound absorption coefficient. The effect of fabric weight in grams per square meter on the sound absorption properties of needle punched nonwoven made from hemp and polypropylene fibres in blending ratio of 50/50% were shown graphically.

The production work was carried out at large scale industrial machines instead of small scale laboratory type machines for more consistent results. These fibres were firstly blended and then carded, laid up and finally, needle punched. The fibre webs were formed at the carding machine and laid up at cross lapper machine according to the required web weight per square meter. Finally, the carded and folded webs (batt) were bonded at needle punching machines, and the needle punched nonwoven fabric production was finished.

The sound absorption coefficients of needle punched nonwoven fabrics were measured by impedance tube method according to ASTM 1050-98 standard in the frequency range of 100-5000Hz.

It was found that the nonwoven fabric produced from PP/Flax fibres had higher sound absorption coefficient values compared to the nonwoven fabrics made from PP/Hemp fibres at 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 fabric weight in the medium and high-frequency range. It was seen that the trends of graphs showing the sound absorption coefficient against the frequency of the PP/Flax and PP/Hemp nonwoven fabrics with 1300g/m2 fabric weight are very similar and their values of sound absorption coefficient are close to each other.

It was observed that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of the needle-punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2, 2200g/m2 from hemp and polypropylene fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% increased with the increase of fabric weight in grams per square meter. It was found that there is a positive correlation between fabric weight and sound absorption coefficient.

Keywords: Natural Fibre, Nonwoven, Sound Absorption Coefficient, Needle Punching Technology

I. Introduction

Noise, which is defined as unwanted or excessive sound, is considered a pollution type like water or air pollution and causes negative impacts on human health. Long term exposure to noises generated in the environment and workplaces can cause many health problems ranging from stress, loss of hearing, tiredness, poor concentration, sleep disturbance, productivity losses, communication difficulties, fatigue, lack of sleep, to more serious issues such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, tinnitus, annoyance and inner ear damage.

In 1971, the World Health Organization (WHO) stated that noise should be accepted as a major environmental threat to human health. It is necessary to protect human health from exposure to environmental noises originating from transportation (road traffic, railway, aircraft, etc.) and leisure noise (nightclubs, concerts, live sporting events, loud music etc.) in addition to noises originating from machines used in workplaces. Many material and methods have been developing to provide acoustic comfort in indoor spaces such as automobile, building, aeroplane and cinema. [1] Compared to commonly used synthetic fibrous material, the materials developed from natural fibres represent eco-friendly solutions in various technical textile applications such as automotive, building, industrial. [2] The nonwoven products produced from natural fibres can be used in building as an alternative to insulation materials such as glass wool, rock wool or mineral wool. [3]

Especially, reducing unwanted noise coming from the engine, tires and traffic on the road in passenger compartments of vehicles is very important for automobile manufacturers. The most preferred fibre-based sound absorbers for noise control applications are nonwoven fabrics. The sound-absorbing nonwoven materials attached to various components such as floor carpet, headliners, trunk&luggage side, parcel shelf, door panels, trunk&luggage floor, protector wheelhouse, accessories mat, dash engine room insulator and pad&spacer tray are used in car interiors. The nonwoven fabrics used in car interiors have superior properties comparing to textile fabrics, including cost-effective, easy moulding, recyclability and attractive cost/performance ratio. In addition to that, the nonwoven fabrics can be designed with specifically targeted properties as thickness, mass and voluminous. Their porous structure and high surface areas make nonwoven fabrics attractive for being used in technical textile applications where sound absorption is desired. [4], [5]

The nonwoven fabrics have a porous structure inherently with interconnected cavities, allowing the sound waves to enter through them. When porous material is exposed to incident sound waves, the air molecules in the material are forced to vibrate and, in doing so, lose some of their original energy. This is because a part of the energy of the air molecules is converted into heat due to thermal and viscous losses at the walls of the interior pores and tunnels within the material. [3], [5]

Figure1-Nonwoven Fabric Applications in Automotive Interior-Otomotiv İç Mekanlarında Dokunmamış Kumaş Uygulamaları

Fibrous materials have been widely used in noise reduction due to porous structures. [6] Today, the existing sound-absorbing nonwoven materials are mostly produced from synthetic materials such as recycled polyester, virgin polyester and polypropylene, which are not biodegradable and eco-friendly. [7] As environmental protection, biodegradability and sustainability are very important issues, the usage of natural fibres such as flax, hemp, kenaf, jute and kapok for automotive textiles applications has been increasing as an alternative material to the synthetic fibres. Natural fibres are considered effective raw materials for producing noise reduction materials.

As the fabric weight in grams per square meter and thickness are important parameters, carding/needle punching or air-laid/ thermal bonding technologies as web forming and web bonding methods are preferred for the production of nonwoven fabrics with sound absorption property.

In previous scientific studies, many researchers have investigated the effect of fibre and fabric properties in addition to fibre type on the sound absorption properties of nonwoven fabrics. The results showed that the use of finer fibres, low fabric density, higher thickness and fabric weight in grams per square meter has a positive effect on the sound absorption of nonwoven materials. Gomez and his colleagues said that the sound absorption performance could be improved by increasing the thickness of the fabric or sample and by having a small fibre diameter. [8] Guzdemir et al. expressed that the jute, flax, hemp, kenaf fibres could be used instead of synthetic fibres such as polyester and polypropylene in construction and automotive application. These natural fibres are generally blended with staple polylactic acid (PLA) fibres. The polylactic fibres (PLA) have significant potential as a biodegradability polymer, but its high cost and slow biodegradability restrict its use. [9] Zhang et al. studied sound and vibration damping property of biocomposites produced from bamboo, cotton, flax and PLA fibres by using carding and needle punching machines. The best acoustic performance was exhibited by bamboo/cotton/PLA composite. [10] Pasayev et al. the sound-absorbing properties of nonwoven webs produced from chicken feather fibres were investigated. In this study, it was stated that nonwoven webs could be used as a sound-absorbing material. [1] Bhat et al. researched that effect of microfiber layers on acoustical absorptive properties of nonwoven fabrics. It was found that polypropylene microfiber melt-blown nonwoven fabric displayed good sound absorption behaviour. [11] Islam et al. indicated that there is a direct correlation between loss of sound transmission with an increase in thickness and fabric weight, decrease in air permeability. [12] Muthukumar et al. studied sound and thermal insulation properties of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced from flax/low melting polyester. The low melting bonding polyester fibres were used at three different blending ratios such as 10%, 20% and 30%. It was found that developed nonwoven fabrics had better sound insulation values at medium and high frequency, and there was no significant change in sound insulation value with increase in the ratio of low melting bonding polyester fibre. It is considered that the presence of central canal-like free space in the flax fibre, which is referred to as lumen can contribute to sound absorption. [3]

Figure2-Some of the Vegetable Fibres-Bitkisel Lif Örnekleri

Thilagavathi et al. compared sound and thermal insulation properties of the needle-punched nonwoven fabrics made from 100% pineapple fibre (PALF) and blend of pineapple/low melting bonding polyester fibre. It was found that nonwoven fabrics produced from the blending of pineapple fibres and low melting bonding PET fibre had better sound insulation properties. [13] Campeau et al. verified the hypothesis that hollowness of the fibre has only small effects on the acoustics of the material in his study. [14] Tang et al. found that the tailored cross-sections of synthetic fibres such as circle, hollow and triangle are beneficial to improve the acoustic properties of the material in his review study. [6] Ganesan and Karthik investigated the effects of blend ratio of cotton fibre with kapok and milkweed fibres, fabric weight and bulk density on acoustic properties of nonwoven fabric. It was found that there is a positive correlation between fabric weight in grams per square meter and sound reduction and negative correlation between bulk density and sound reduction. It should remember that the porosity of nonwoven fabric is a very significant parameter on sound reduction. [7] Liu et al. investigated the sound-absorbing properties of nonwoven composites made from kapok fibre with polypropylene fibre and hollow polyester fibre in the low-frequency region of 100-500Hz. It was found that kapok fibre had a superior acoustical property at low frequency. [15]

In this study, the sound absorption properties of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 from Polypropylene/Flax and Polypropylene/Hemp fibres in blending ratio of 50/50% were investigated in the frequency range of 100Hz to 5000Hz. Moreover, the influence of fabric weight on sound absorption properties of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 from PP/Hemp fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% were studied.

Figure3-Natural Fibre Reinforced Nonwoven Composites-Doğal Elyaf Takviyeli Dokunmamış Kumaş Esaslı Kompozit Ürünler

II. Materials and Method

II.1. Materials

Hemp and flax fibres were procured from local fibre producer in Romania. As the fine flax fibres used at yarn production in the textile industry are not cost-effective for the nonwoven industry, the coarse flax fibres were preferred in the production of nonwoven fabrics. The flax and hemp fibres were not treated with alkali solution before further processing.

The polypropylene fibre with 6.7dtex fineness and 75mm staple length was used in the study. The mechanical properties of fibres were tested according to “TSE EN ISO 5079 Textiles-Fibres-Determination of Breaking Force and Elongation at Break of Individual Fibres” standard. The mechanical properties and fineness values of the fibres used in the experimental study were given at Table1.

Table1-Mechanical Properties and Fineness Values of Fibres, Liflerin Mekanik Özellikleri ve İncelik Değerleri

  Tenacity

Mukavemet

(cN/tex)

Elongation

Uzama

(%)

   Fibre Fineness

Lif İnceliği

(tex)

Polypropylene (Polipropilen) 27,42 198,58              0,670
Flax (Keten) 45,72 4,5154 4,488
Hemp (Kenevir) 53,82 6,2860 6,941

II.2. Web Formation

The staple polypropylene fibres were blended with flax and hemp fibres in the ratio of 50/50% separately. The production study was carried out at industrial type needle punching line consisting of carding, cross lapper, pre-needling and needle punching machines instead of laboratory-type machines.

II.3. Web Bonding-Production of Needle Punched Nonwoven Fabrics

The webs were formed at the carding machine and overlapped at cross lapping machine according to required web weight. The carded webs in which the fibres are laid parallel to each other were pre-needled at punch density of 5punch/cm2. The pre-needled nonwoven fabrics were mechanically bonded by using two needle punching machines. The needle punched nonwoven fabrics were produced with punch densities of 50punch/cm2 and 45 punch/cm2 at needle punching machines respectively. The depth of needle penetration was determined to 10mm for all needle punching process.

Test Results

The values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics were measured by using BSWA TECH impedance tube system and method according to ASTM 1050-98 standard in the frequency range of 100-5000Hz. The nonwoven fabrics were cut into 100mm and 30mm diameters for measurements in low, medium and high-frequency ranges.

Figure4-The Values of Sound Absorption Coefficient of PP/Hemp Nonwoven Fabric-PP/Kenevir Esaslı Dokunmamış Kumaşların Ses Yutum Katsayısı Değerleri

Figure4 shows the influence of fabric weight on the sound absorption properties of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2, 2200g/m2 from hemp and staple polypropylene fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50%. The sound absorption results were given in the unit of the sound absorption coefficient. The values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics were measured in the frequency range of 100Hz to 5000Hz. It was seen that all needle punched nonwoven fabrics had lower sound absorption coefficient values in the low-frequency range.

As the nonwoven fabric weight in grams per square meter increased, it was observed that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of all nonwoven fabrics increased starting from 500Hz. This result can be explained with due to the higher number of fibres in nonwoven fabric structure and larger fibre surface area, thus longer tortuous path for sound waves to travel in nonwoven fabric structure. The damping of sound waves depends on the tortuous paths of fibres in the nonwoven fabric. [16]

It was remarkable that all of the PP/Hemp needle-punched nonwoven fabrics have exhibited poor sound absorption performance in the low-frequency range of 100-500Hz. It is suggested that the addition of viscous interlayer material with sound-proofing property could be used to increase the damping effect. [4] Sound absorption at low frequencies can be improved either by increasing the thickness of the sound absorbers and providing an air gap between the sound absorber and solid backing. [16], [17]

Figure5-Sound Absorption and Insulation Mechanisms-Ses Yutum ve Yalıtım Mekanizmaları

Figure6-The Values of Sound Absorption Coefficient of PP/Hemp and PP/Flax Nonwoven Fabric at 1300g/m2 Fabric Weight-1300g/m2 PP/Kenevir ve PP/Keten Esaslı Dokunmamış Kumaşların Ses Yutum Katsayısı Değerleri

In the Figure6, the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at 1300g/m2 fabric weight from PP/Flax and PP/Hemp fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% were compared in the frequency range of 100-5000Hz. It was seen that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of both of the needle-punched nonwoven fabrics increased continuously in the frequency range of 500Hz to 5000Hz. It was observed that the trends of the sound absorption coefficient graphs of both PP/Flax and PP/Hemp nonwoven fabrics were similar to each other. Both of the needle-punched nonwoven fabrics exhibited poor sound absorption performance in the low-frequency range of 100Hz to 500Hz. This result can be explained by the fact that the wavelength of the sound wave is longer and the propagation path of the sound wave is the shorter at low frequency.

Figure7-The Values of Sound Absorption Coefficient of PP/Hemp and PP/Flax Nonwoven Fabric at 1600g/m2 Fabric Weight-1600g/m2 PP/Kenevir ve PP/Keten Esaslı Dokunmamış Kumaşların Ses Yutum Katsayısı Değerleri

In the Figure7, the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at 1600g/m2 fabric weight from PP/Flax and PP/Hemp fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% were compared in the frequency range of 100-5000Hz. It was seen that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of both of the needle punched nonwoven fabrics increased continuously in the frequency range of 400 to 5000Hz. It was observed that PP/Flax nonwoven fabric had higher sound absorption coefficient values compared to PP/Hemp nonwoven fabric in the frequencies between 1250 and 4000Hz. It was seen that the sound absorption coefficient values of PP/Flax and PP/Hemp nonwoven fabrics were almost the same in the frequencies between 100Hz and 1000Hz.

Figure8-The Values of Sound Absorption Coefficient of PP/Hemp and PP/Flax Nonwoven Fabric at 2200g/m2 Fabric Weight-2200g/m2 PP/Kenevir ve PP/Keten Esaslı Dokunmamış Kumaşların Ses Yutum Katsayısı Değerleri

In the Figure8, the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at 2200g/m2 fabric weight from PP/Flax and PP/Hemp fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% were compared in the frequency range of 100Hz to 5000Hz. It was seen that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of both of the needle punched fabrics nonwoven increased continuously in the frequencies between 315Hz and 5000Hz. It was observed that PP/Flax nonwoven fabric had higher sound absorption coefficient values compared to PP/Hemp nonwoven fabric in the frequencies between 315 and 2500Hz. This result may be due to the fact that the flax fibres are finer than hemp fibres. As the flax fibres are finer than hemp fibres, the nonwoven fabric produced from flax fibres has a higher number of fibres. This leads to an increase in surface area of fibre in nonwoven fabric and higher sound absorbency. It was seen that PP/Flax and PP/Hemp needle punched nonwoven fabrics had low sound absorption coefficient values in the low-frequency range. This result can be explained by the fact that the wavelength of the sound wave is longer and the propagation path of the sound wave is the shorter at low frequency. As a result, dissipation of sound energy at lower frequencies is less and more dissipation in higher frequencies. Developed nonwoven fabrics can be used as effective sound absorptive materials for medium and high-frequency sound absorption applications. The nonwoven fabrics with higher sound absorption properties in the low-frequency range should be developed in the future.

III. Conclusion

In this study, the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced at three different fabric weight such as 1300g/m2, 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 from PP/Flax and PP/Hemp fibres in blending ratio of 50/50% were compared in the frequency range of 100Hz to 5000Hz. Moreover, the influence of fabric weight on sound absorption property of needle punched nonwoven fabric produced hemp and polypropylene fibres in the blending ratio of 50/50% was investigated. The nonwoven fabrics were produced by using industrial type the carding, cross lapping and needle punching machines.

It was observed that the PP/Flax needle-punched nonwoven fabrics had higher sound absorption coefficient values compared to PP/Hemp nonwoven fabric at 1600g/m2 and 2200g/m2 fabric weight in the medium and high-frequency range. This result could be due to the finer and more porosity structure of flax fibres compared to hemp fibres.

It was seen that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics produced from hemp and polypropylene fibres increased with the increase of fabric weight in grams per square meter. As the weight of nonwoven fabric in grams per square meter increased, it was seen that the values of the sound absorption coefficient of needle punched nonwoven fabrics increased significantly due to the increasing number of fibres and fibre surface area in the nonwoven fabric structure. It should be emphasized once again that the nonwoven fabrics produced from finer fibres are ideal materials for sound absorption applications due to the fact that they have a higher total surface area.

References

1- Pasayev,N.; Kocatepe,S.; Maras,N.: (2018) “Investigation of Sound Absorption Properties of Nonwoven Webs Produced from Chicken Feather Fibers”, Journal of Industrial Textiles, Vol.48, Issue:10, pp.1616-1635

2- L.,Jiangbo; Z,Shangyong; T,Xiaoning : (2020) “Sound Absorption of Hemp Fibers Based Nonwoven Fabrics and Composites, Journal of Natural Fibres.

3- Muthukumar,N.; Thilagavathi,G.; Neelakrishnan,S.; Poovaragan,P.T.: “Sound and Thermal Insulation Properties of Flax/Low Melt PET Needle Punched Nonwovens”, Journal of Natural Fibres, 2019, Vol.16, No.2, pp.245-252.

4-Prahsarn,C.; Klinsukhon,W.; Suwannnamek,N.; Wannid,P.; Padee,S.: (2020) “Sound Absorption Performance of Needle Punched Nonwovens and Their Composites with Perforated Rubber”, SN Applied Sciences, 2020

5-Palak,H.; Karaguzel Kayaoglu,B.: (2020) “Analysis of the Effect of Fiber Cross Section and Different Bonding Methods on Sound Absorption Performance of PET Fiber Based Nonwovens Using Taguchi Method”, The Journal of the Textile Institute, 2020, Vol.111, No.4, pp.575-585.

6-Tang,X.; Yan,X.: (2017) “Acoustic Energy Absorption Properties of Fibrous Materials: A Review”, Composites Part A-Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol.101, pp.360-380

7-Ganesan,P.; Karthik,T.: (2016) “Development of Acoustic Nonwoven Materials from Kapok and Milkweed Fibres”, Journal of   Textile Institute, Vol.107, Issue:4, Apr, pp.477-482

8-Gomez,T.S.; Navacerrada,M.A.; Diaz,C.: (2020) “Fique Fibres as a Sustainable Material for Thermoacoustic Conditioning”, Applied Acoustics, Vol.164, No.UNSP 107240.

9-Guzdemir,O.; Bermudez,V.; Kanhere,S.: “Melt-Spun Poly(lactic acid) Fibers Modified with Soy Fillers: Toward Environment-Friendly Disposable Nonwovens”, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol.60, Issue:6, pp.1158-1168, Jun2020.

10-Zhang,J.; Khatibi,A.A.; Castanet,E.: “Effect of Natural Fibre Reinforcement on the Sound and Vibration Damping Properties of Bio-Composites Compression Moulded by Nonwovens Mats”, Composites Communications, Vol.13, pp.12-17, Jun2019.

11-Bhat,G.; El Messiry,M.: “Effect of Microfiber Layers on Acoustical Absorptive Properties of Nonwoven Fabrics”, Journal of Industrial Textiles, Vol.50, Issue:3, pp.312-332

12-Islam,S.; El Messiry,M.; Sikdar,P.P.; Seylar,J.; Bhat,G.: (2020) “Microstructure and Performance Characteristics of Acoustic Insulation Materials from Post-Consumer Recycled Denim Fabrics”, Journal of Industrial Textiles, DOI:10.1177/1528083720940746

13-Thilagavathi,G.; Muthukumar,N.; Krishnanan,S.N.; Senthilram,T.: (2019) “Development and Characterization of Pineapple Fibre Nonwovens fro Thermal and Sound Insulation Applications”, Journal of Natural Fibers, Vol.17, Isuue:10, pp.1391-1400.

14-Campeau,S.; Panneton,R.; Elkoun,S.: “Experimental Validation of an Acoustical Micro-Macro Model for Random Hollow Fibre Structures”, Acta Acustica United with Acustica, Vol.105, Issue1, Special Issue:SI, Jan-Feb 2019, pp.240-247

15-Liu,X.; Li,L.; Yan,X.: “Sound-Absorbing Properties of Kapok Fiber Nonwoven Composite at low Frequency”, 3rd International Conference o Textile Engineering and Materials, Aug 24-25, Dalian, Peoples R China, 2013.

16-Ramamoorthy,M.; Rengasamy,R.S.: “Study on the Effects of Denier and Shapes of Polyester Fibres on Acoustic Performance of Needle Punched Nonwovens with Air-Gap” The Journal of The Textile Institute, 2019, Vol.110, No.5, pp.715-723

17-Shoshani,Y.;Yakubov,Y.: “A Model for Calculating the Noise Absorption Capacity of Nonwoven Fibre Webs, Textile Research Journal, Vol.69(7), pp.519-526.

Global Success of Technical Textiles will be Reflected in HIGHTEX 2021

The nonwoven and technical textiles industry has become the focus of the whole world during the pandemic process. Most countries carried out works for these sectors with their investments, production and innovations.

During the pandemic process, a new one is added every day to the works for the nonwoven and technical textiles sector, whose importance is increasing in line with the needs. Turkey has become a center of  technical textiles by showing that its accumulation in these field and power.

In the Turkish technical textiles sector, which has an export market of 107 billion dollars worldwide and continues to break its own export record every month, R&D and innovation investments continue without slowing down. Technical textile exports, which increased by 77 percent in last November compared to the same month of the previous year, increased by 55 percent in January – November period and reached 2.5 billion dollars. Thus, technical and smart textiles and production technologies both attracted more attention and gained more importance in line with the needs of the pandemic process.

HIGHTEX 2021 Will Break A New Record

HIGHTEX 2021 International Technical Textiles and Nonwoven Fair, which will be held at Tüyap Fair and Congress Center on 22-26 June 2021, will be the exhibition where the latest technologies and products for nonwoven, technical and smart textiles which have become more important during the pandemic period and have become the focus of the whole world. Especially the products and technologies produced for the pandemic will attract more attention at the exhibition. HIGHTEX 2021 Exhibition, which will gather its exhibitors and visitors under one roof, will also allow new collaborations. At the same time, the exhibition, where developing technologies and products are exhibited, will provide a great advantage in terms of the formation of new business ideas.

HIGHTEX 2021, the first and only exhibition in Turkey in its field are expected to sign a new record in terms of number of exhibitors and visitors. You can visit www.hightexfairs.com website for more information about HIGHTEX 2021, which is preparing to attract more attention and host people than ever before.

Yozgat Bozok University Will Produce Industrial Hemp and Bring in the National Economy

Yozgat Bozok University, which has turned to scientific studies in hemp production, which is on the agenda of the country as a strategic agricultural product after it has been popularized recently, will bring in the benefits of hemp production to the national economy once they have the yields.

The cultivation of industrial hemp, which has a wide range of uses from textiles to the automobile industry, from construction materials to cosmetic products, from the energy sector to the food industry through biomass, is carried out by Bozok University in Yozgat and its surroundings. Yozgat Bozok University, which has become a specialized university in the field of ‘production of industrial hemp’ in order to spread hemp production throughout the country and bring it to the economy, started to work by experimenting with 16 varieties of cannabis, both domestic and foreign, in the center and neighborhood of Boğazlıyan district. In this context, the Hemp Research Institute was established within the university, and more than 100 academicians within the bodies of six research groups turned to scientific studies in the field of industrial hemp.

‘‘We have come a long way in a very short amount of time’’

Reminding that Yozgat Bozok University is the specialized university in the field of industrial hemp production as of January, the Rector of Yozgat Bozok University Prof. Dr. Ahmet Karadağ expressed the following statements regarding the subject, ‘‘The Higher Education Institute in Turkey delivered us the tasks related to the assessment of biomass as a mission in this area. Our goal is to ensure that hemp, which is an important plant with many uses, is brought into the economy. Yozgat Bozok University started the process for the evaluation of cannabis when it became a specialized university on the subject. We can confidently claim that we have come a long way in a very short amount of time. Companies that have reached a certain stage in the sector related to the production of hemp started to meet with us. We will have collaborations and partnerships with these companies in the near future. We are very excited about this. Because we are the only university with a mission in Turkey to bring in the economic benefits of hemp.’’

Rector Prof. Dr. Karadağ explained that they are conducting studies in order to produce a new generation battery using hemp and continued his statements as follows, ‘‘Cannabis can be used in a vast range of areas, some of them even hard to imagine. One such use is the energy sector. Especially the cellulose part of the biomass of cannabis can be utilized in the production of bioethanol, which has to be used at least 10 percent as a fuel additive in gasoline vehicles. Ethanol gained significant value, especially during the troublesome pandemic outbreak period. We will also use hemp in the production of the battery that we call super-capacitor, which is a new generation battery, in addition to the production of bioethanol.’’

‘‘We need legal regulations on hemp production’’

Bozok University Vice-Rector and Hemp Research Project Coordinator Prof. Dr. Güngör Yılmaz stated the following regarding the subject, ‘‘We are aware that cannabis has been produced in Anatolia for many years. Our endeavors have been ongoing for three years. We brought together both the representatives of the industry and scientists who will work in this subject area. Currently, every tiny piece of cannabis, from its root to its peak, is used by many different sectors and areas in the world. Sectors, in which a significant volume of trade has been carried out, have formed, and the medical sector is one of them. However, in order for these industries to be revived, we need legal regulations regarding industrial hemp production, especially in the medical sense. But unfortunately, we currently have some restrictions on how it works. At this point, we need the new current cannabis law, especially the law on drugs, to be reviewed and updated.’’

Bursa Will Have a Say in Composite Technologies Through IKMAMM

The Advanced Composite Materials Research and Excellence Center (IKMAMM) was established by the Bursa Chamber of Commerce and Industry (BTSO) in order to contribute to the sustainability of the sectors, which produce and use advanced composite materials, and to strengthen the R&D infrastructure of the industry.

Implemented in Demirtaş Organized Industrial Zone with an investment amounting to 17 million Turkish Lira, IKMAMM will serve industrialists both as an R&D and test center.

Mustafa Varank, the Minister of Industry and Technology, joined the opening ceremony of IKMAMM, which was established by BTSO with the support of Bursa Eskişehir Bilecik Development Agency (BEBKA), within the structure of Bursa Technology Coordination and R&D Center (BUTEKOM). IKMAMM, which will play a critical role in the transition of the industry of Bursa to technological products with higher added value and sectoral transformation, aims to make Bursa a base of technology in the field of composite materials, which are considered as the technology of the future.

Prototype Infrastructure with 20 Different Tests and 5 Different Methods

IKMAMM, which will lead R&D studies in the sector, will serve in a wide range of expertise from prototype production to testing and analysis activities. The center, which offers prototype infrastructure with 20 different tests and 5 different methods in the field of composites, draws attention especially with its strong equipment in the field of sample production. In the center, there are technologies available such as cleanroom, autoclave, RTM molding, thermoplastic molding presses, curing oven, pre-preg machine for composite materials.

Most Comprehensive Combustion Laboratory of Turkey

IKMAMM, possessing one of the most comprehensive combustion laboratories in Turkey, will enable the combustion tests of the equipment to be used in the rail systems, automotive, and aviation industries. Industrialists will be able to perform these tests, which they previously had to perform at high costs abroad, at IKMAMM in a fast and reliable way at much more affordable costs.

Active Support for University-Industry Collaboration

IKMAMM, in addition, will undertake an important mission at the point of developing university-industry collaboration. The center will enable the development of specific projects within the scope of university-industry cooperation with companies, which produce composite materials. The Ministry of Industry and Technology will provide technical support to 25 SMEs through IKMAMM in the next 3 years to develop and commercialize advanced technology products. In addition, within the scope of TÜBİTAK Industry-Doctorate Program, 23 doctoral students will work together with the researchers, R&D, and production processes expert IKMAMM team.

‘‘A New Structure Organizing the Composites Industry’’

Speaking at the opening ceremony of the center, which was organized with GUHEM, Mustafa Varank, the Minister of Industry and Technology stated that in the coming years, being mainly in automotive, composite materials would be used extensively in many sectors such as textile, defense, aviation, and rail systems because of their superior endurance and environmentally friendly qualities. Emphasizing that developing composite materials requires very serious knowledge accumulation and R&D infrastructure, Minister Varank continued his statement as follows, ‘‘We established IKMAMM so that the industry of Bursa can acquire new capabilities in developing these materials. The companies will have the opportunity to carry out the R&D activities, which they cannot realize in-house, by using the infrastructures here. We need to see this place not only as a research center but also as a new structure organizing the composites industry. We will accelerate the commercial development of the companies through the capabilities of the center. Therefore, we are bringing in an infrastructure that offers much more than R&D. In other words, we both improve the existing capabilities of the industry and enable it to acquire new capabilities.’’

‘‘An Investment Made in the Future of Bursa’’

Bursa Chamber of Commerce and Industry Chairman İbrahim Burkay expressed that they have taken decisive steps with the goal of creating a leading Bursa that produces high technology and added value since the day he took the office. Burkay stated that, through IKMAMM, they aim to improve the production capability of industrialists in Bursa in the composite materials sector, which is a very strategic field. He continued with the following statements, ‘‘With the vision, which we have put forward as BTSO, we aim to direct our industrialists to high value-added business areas. In addition to our traditional sectors such as automotive, textile, and machinery, our target is to make Bursa a global player in sectors such as rail systems, composite, aviation, and defense. At this point, IKMAMM is a very important investment in the future of our city. Our companies in the composite sector, which is called the material of the future, will have the opportunity to develop these technologies starting today.’’

‘‘We Will Establish Two More Excellence Centers’’

The Chairman Burkay noted that IKMAMM, the second center of excellence they brought to Bursa after the Textile and Technical Textile Center of Excellence within the body BUTEKOM, has a strong R&D infrastructure required for the production and development of original products in the composite sector. He finalized his remarks on the subject with the following statements, ‘‘We expect all industrialists to benefit from the facilities of our center. We aim to bring two more excellence centers to Bursa in the fields of nanotechnology and micromechanics-microelectronics in the near future.’’

The First International Exhibition Held in Tüyap Fair Area During the Pandemic Period Attracted Intense Interest

Following the global pandemic period, Turkey’s first international fair opening its doors as WOODTECH Wood Processing Machines, Cutting Tools and Hand Tools Fair, it is held at Tüyap Istanbul Fair and Congress Center on October 10-14, 2020. At the exhibition, where a large number of visitors come from domestic and abroad, the measures taken at every point from the entrance ensure the highest level of protection for all participants and visitors.
Tüyap Fair and Congress Center which has Turkey’s first and only ‘TSE Covid-19 Secure Service Certificate’ began a reliable way to host international exhibitions.

HIGHTEX 2021 International Nonwoven and Technical Textiles Fair which will be held on 22 – 26 June 2021, is preparing to host its domestic and foreign participants and visitors in a hygienic, reliable and health-oriented environment within the framework of all the measures taken in the fair area. Preparation for our exhibitions continue at full speed.

Eruslu Nonwoven Group Ordered Spunlace Line from Andritz

International Technology Group Andritz has received an order from Eruslu Nonwoven Group to supply a complete neXline spunlace line for its plant located in Gaziantep.

The line has a production capacity of 18,000 t/a and is scheduled for installation and start-up at the beginning of 2021.

This new spunlace eXcelle line will be able to process a wide range of fibers, like polyester, viscose, lyocell, and bleached cotton, with grammages from 30 up to 75 gsm. It will produce high-quality wet wipes for cosmetics applications, fem care and baby diapers, dust wipes, hair dressing towels, medical bandages and gauzes, and many other products. The new line will enable Eruslu to diversify its product portfolio into new technical applications.

Andritz will deliver a complete line, from web forming to drying.

The scope of supply includes:

  • One complete set of Laroche opening and blending machinery,
  • Two inline high-speed TT cards,
  • One JetlaceEssentiel unit, which is the benchmark for hydroentanglement processes, Including an Andritz full filtration unit,
  • One neXdry double drum through-air dryer,
  • One neXecodry S1 system for energy saving

The Fourth Spunlace Line Order

Andritz and Eruslu have a long-term and successful collaboration that began in 2009. This is the fourth spunlace line to be provided by Andritz, and it confirms the strong partnership between the two companies.

Eruslu Nonwoven Group, established in 1972, is a leading Turkish company specialized in the production of various textile products. In the nonwovens sector, the Group provides disposable products for the home cleaning and health sectors.